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3. Colonial society in the 18th century (1607-1754)

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SAT2 U.S. History Flashcards on 3. Colonial society in the 18th century (1607-1754), created by Moshe Polak on 30/01/2017.
Moshe Polak
Flashcards by Moshe Polak, updated more than 1 year ago
Moshe Polak
Created by Moshe Polak over 5 years ago
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Resource summary

Question Answer
English cultural domination Most immigrants were English, and therefore the English culture dominated. However, there were immigrants from other countries too, as well as a large slave population. This affected the American culture too.
Benjamin West & John Copley Two American painters who traveled to England to get training and financial support to establish themselves as prominent artists.
Benjamin Franklin An important figure in the time period and a founding father; he was a statesman, author, publisher, scientist, inventor and diplomat.
Poor Richard's Almanack An almanac that Benjamin Franklin wrote under a pseudonym. It was very popular and well written.
Phillis Wheatley An African American female poet.
John Bartram of Philadelphia A self taught scientist
Ministers Always respected in America. Ministers were often the only people in the settlement who had any education.
Physicians Doctors weren't of much good, and didn't get good education besides being some famous physician's apprentices. Franklin opened a medicine division in his college of Philadelphia (later to become UPenn)
Lawyers Lawyers were viewed as trouble makers who talk a lot, but in the 18th century, when the country developed and more complex issues arose, they became popular.
Jonathan Edwards A congregational minister in New England who was a part of the Great Awakening.
George Whitefield A minister who came from England and held popular sermons. Preached that a sincere soul could understand gospels without a minister leading them.
Religious toleration When compared to Europeans, the Americans were more tolerating towards various denominations and religions.
Established church A church which is connected to the state, and is funded by direct taxing.
The Great Awakening A religious movement that reached its height in the 1730's and 1740's, wherein the already religious Americans became super religious. This made religion more emotional. An emphasis on the eternal suffering in hell of sinners.
Cotton Mather A Massachusetts minister whose writing were a popular read.
Sectarian vs. Non sectarian colleges Most higher education was sectarian i.e. sponsored and affiliated with a certain denomination. One exception of that was Franklin's College of Philadelphia.
Subsistence farming Farming only for the purpose of feeding you family, little is left for trade.
John Hector ST John de Crevecoeur Wrote about his life in the American colonies, presenting a new, more developed society than that of the 17th century.
Colonial Families Patriarchal, many children. The women were working besides their husband, taking care of house duties, raising and educating the children.
Germans Settled in the rich farmlands west of Philadelphia, retained their culture. By 1775 were 6% of the population.
Scotch-Irish People who moved from Scotland to Ireland, then pressured by Britain to move to the colonies - didn't like Britain. By 1775 they were 7% of the population.
Huguenots French protestant immigrants.
Dutch, Swedes, French Minorities which made up about 5% of the population (1775).
Africans 20% of the population by 1775. 90% were in the southern colonies. Hereditary slaves, discriminating laws in all colonies.
Social Mobility With the exception of the Africans, all classes had the opportunity to improve.
Hereditary aristocrisy Didn't exist in the extreme way it did in Europe. Class range was narrower.
The Zenger Case John Peter Zenger wrote something about the governor of NY. It was illegal at the time, even if what he said was true, but the jury claimed he wasn't guilty. A big step in freedom of speech.
Andrew Hamilton Zenger's lawyer.
Colonial governors Were chosen either by the king or the proprietor (in Pennsylvania, Maryland and Delaware) or by the people (in Rhode Island and Connecticut)
Colonial Legislature Consisted of two house, the lower elected by the people, and the higher elected by the ones who elected the governor.
County Government In the south, settling was sparse and in solitary plantations/farms. Therefore, countries with sheriffs were formed.
Town meetings In the north, where most people lived in adjacency, town meetings were held to deal with different matters.
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