KEY APPROACHES

jennifer.rayment
Flashcards by jennifer.rayment, updated more than 1 year ago
jennifer.rayment
Created by jennifer.rayment almost 8 years ago
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AS psychology Flashcards on KEY APPROACHES, created by jennifer.rayment on 05/09/2013.

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Question Answer
COGNITIVE APPROACH what are the basic assumptions? - Internal mental processes like memory and perception can be studied scientifically - Humans actively process information - Humans process information similarly to computers - input and output: computer analogy - Theoretical models can be used to explain cognitive processes
COGNITIVE APPROACH what are the strengths? - It considers the role of thinking in behaviour - Cognitive models (computer) help to explain complex thinking processes by separating a complex process into its separate components - It focuses on investigations using human participants - Highly controlled scientific methods - Successful therapies have been developed using cognitive principles: E.G. cognitive behaviour therapy
PSYCHODYNAMIC APPROACH what are the basic assumptions? - Unconscious mental processes shape our behaviour - Personality is in 3 parts: Id, Ego & superego - Early childhood experiences influence adult behaviour and personality - Development takes place in psychosexual stages - Defence mechanisms are unconscious processes that protect the conscious self from unpleasant events/thoughts
PSYCHODYNAMIC APPROACH what are the strengths? - Freud recognised the importance of childhood experiences later in life - The idea of unconscious mental activity is appealing - Defence mechanisms offer plausible explanations for everyday behaviour and experiences
Biological Approach what are the basic assumptions? - Genes influence behaviour - Biological structures such as the brain and nervous system influence our behaviour - Brain chemistry influences our behaviour - Behaviour has evolved: behaviours that can help us survive are more likely to be passed on to future generations
BIOLOGICAL APPROACH what are the strengths? - Methods are highly scientific - Knowing how biology is involved in psychological disorders enables researchers to find suitable treatments
BIOLOGICAL APPROACH what are the limitations? - Ignores environmental factors - it is reductionist as it is over simplistic: cannot explain complex behaviours at the levels of cells and chemicals - suggests that the mind and the brain are the same thing - it suggests people do not have free will to decide how to behave. biological determinism - difficult to generalise animal research to humans
BEHAVIOURIST APPROACH what are the basic assumptions? - All behaviour is learned through association and can be learned through stimulus-response links - Behaviour depends on consequences: reinforcement and punishment - Sensible to generalise animal research to human behaviour - Should only study observable behaviours not mental processes like memory and attention
BEHAVIOURIST APPROACH what are the strengths? - Highly controlled scientific methods - It enables the prediction of behaviour - Many therapies derived from behaviourist approach: token economy
BEHAVIOURIST APPROACH what are the limitations? - Assumes that biological factors have little influence on behaviour - Neglects mental processes and emotions - Behaviour is seen to be determined by the environment: suggests there is no free will: environmental determinism - Not sensible to generalise from animal research to human behaviour - Seeing all behaviour in terms of simple stimulus-response links is an oversimplification
SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY what are the basic assumptions? - Behaviour is learned through observation and imitation - Modelling is performing a behaviour demonstrated by a model, a person with whom we identify - Identification with someone involves a desire to be like them and therefore leads to a desire to imitate them - Vicarious reinforcement - learning from observing consequences of others - Mediating cognitive factors occur between stimulus and response
SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY what are the strengths? - It considers the role of cognitive factors in learning - It explains the learning of complex human behaviours such as aggression
SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY what are the limitations? - The bobo doll experiment is highly artificial - lacks ecological validity - Not all behaviours are learned by observation and can be readily copied: some take years of practice while others are classically or operantly conditioned
PSYCHODYNAMIC APPROACH what are the limitations? - It is often accused of being male-orientated - It over emphasises the sexual instinct
COGNITIVE APPROACH what are the limitations? - The cognitive approach says little about initial causes of behaviour - It takes a mechanistic view - Cognitive experiments tend to be highly artificial, lacking in ecological validity
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