Other Approaches > Psychodynamic Therapy

Mercedes Bell
Flashcards by Mercedes Bell, updated more than 1 year ago


Preparation for 'Seen' exam questions. Structured to memorise all points of consideration for the two questions being asked. Includes supportive research, and Christian views to integrate into answers. Memorise it!

Resource summary

Question Answer
What is Psychodynamic Therapy - Evolved from Psychoanalysis - Founded by Sigmund Freud (1880 & 1890's) - Relieve psychological problems by exploring the unconscious processes of minds to help clients to recall their childhoods * Forms the 'Psychodynamic branch in the 'Human Psychology' tree.
Acronyms (UA) Underlying Assumptions (VH) Views of Humans (VNA) Views of Normality/Abnormality (GT) Goals of Therapy (MC) Mechanisms of Change (RT) Role of Therapist
What does Pyschodynamic mean Any approach that refers to the 'inner drives and conflicts of the mind'
What are the Freudian Psychosexual stages of development - Oral (birth -18 mos.) - Anal (18 mos - 3 years) - Phallic (3-6 years) - Latency (6 - puberty) - Genital (puberty onward)
(UA) List the underlying assumptions associated with Psychodynamic Therapy UA (Underlying Assumptions) - What lies in the unconscious mind strongly affects behaviour - Childhood is considered the foundation of the personality
(RT) What is the role of the therapist in Psychodynamic Therapy - To be the 'expert' in the counsellor/client relationship - To maintain a somewhat distant approach in order to provoke transference
(VH) What are the views of humans from a Psychodynamic stance - Personality is made up of three parts (ID, EGO, SUPEREGO) - Psychosexual stages of development (Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latency, Genital) - Therapist acts as the expert, while the client is treated as a patient
Outline the structural assumptions which are said to make up the personality traits 1) ID (most primitive sexual urges and desires - present at birth are largely unconscious) 2) EGO (reality based and interacts with the external world - conscious and mediating the urges of the ID) 3) SUPEREGO ( places restrictions on the ID and EGO - partially conscious and comprised of moralistic standards)
(VNA) What are the views of normality and abnormality from a Psychodynamic stance NORMALITY: Awareness of self, conscious management ABNORMALITY: Defence mechanisms (denial and repression - avoidance) * Everyone is pathological to a greater or lesser degree
(GT) What are the goals of Psychodynamic Therapy - Locate areas of conflict by identifying the individual areas of personality (ID, EGO, SUPEREGO) - Discover hidden meaning in dreams to reveal links to childhood experiences. - Analyse counsellor-client relationship (Played out in the form of transference-counter transference) * A complete analysis of the whole personality and resolutions for all intrapsychic conflicts.
(MC) What are the mechanisms of change in Psychodynamic Therapy * To bring all areas of the client's personality into consciousness - Breaking down defence mechanisms using the three parts of self (Id, Ego, Superego) to address inner conflict - Using the method of 'Free Association' to analyse thoughts (Freudian Slips) - Interpretation of dreams
Christian Critique Free association and other psychoanalytical techniques strongly suggest that there is a level of thinking, perceiving, and feeling beyond direct consciousness. These assertions are not inconsistent with the Scriptural understanding of persons (Modern Psychotherapies, p.121) however, there is no empirical evidence for this which Freud calls Metapsychology and dismissed by many.
Point 1 Psychodynamic Therapy is considered a young discipline because it cannot yield a single dominant paradigm (Modern Psychologies, Pg. 149)
Point 2 Christian views on the theory of psychosexual development has changed. Before practitioners were skeptical but experiences with family and own clients taught them that broadly understood, the development themes have some contemporary relevance. (Modern Psychotherapies)
Evidence Bowlby was a psychoanalyst who saw himself as retracing Freud’s steps but with the advantage of new theoretical and empirical strategies.
Christian Critique 1) Emphasis on sexual and aggressive drives as the motivational basis of behaviour 2) Deterministic and Naturalistic assumptions of the model 3) Direct attacks on religion is Freud's later writings 4) Need more empirical investigation and research
Clinical Evidence 'Harry Guntrip' (Book: Schizoid Phenomena, Object-relations and the Self) * his extensive work with schizoid patients proves that the Freudian personality theory (primarily the superego) is the core problem within psychotherapy
Read On... Sigmund Freud (image/jpeg) More information on Psychodynamic Therapy
What are the three modern forces which make up Freud's view of the human condition 1) Instincts 2) Rationality 3) Culture
What are the two interactive human drives which are said to be fundamental in human behaviour 1) Libidinal drive 2) Death drive/instinct * At the core of Freudian view of human nature and what drives human behaviour
Outline Freud's Historical- Cultural context 1) The Enlightenment worldview of the late nineteenth century 2) Darwinian assumptions underlying Freud's anthropology 3) Victorian-era Austrian cultural milieu
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