Approaches in Psychology - A level

Ellie  Porter
Flashcards by Ellie Porter, updated more than 1 year ago
Ellie  Porter
Created by Ellie Porter over 2 years ago
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AQA Alevel psychology approaches in detail

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Approaches in Psychology Approaches (image/jpeg) Psychology is the scientific study of the human mind and its functions, especially those functions affecting behaviour in a given context
Order of Approaches Time Line Of Approaches (image/png) 1879 - Wundt opens first lab 1900's - Freud's Psychodynamic 1913 - Watson & Skinner Behaviourist 1950's - Rogers & Maslow Humanistic 1960's - Cognitive -Behaviourist 1980's - Biological - Cognitive neuroscience
Wilhelm Wundt - Introspection 1879 Wundt (image/jpeg) The first systematic experimental attempt to study the mind by breaking up conscious awareness into basic structures of thoughts, images and sensations
Sigmund Freud - Psychodynamic Approach 1900's Freud (image/jpeg) A perspective that describes different forces, most of which are unconscious that operate the mind & direct human behaviour & experience
Id: Unconscious thought - selfish and aggressive instincts which demand immediate gratification Ego: Reality check - balancing demands of the Id and Superego Superego: Moralistic part of personality which represents the ideal self of who we ought to be Psychology Personality Development Table 1 (image/jpeg)
Strengths - Theory had a large influence on early psychology & western thought Can be practically applied through psychoanalysis Limitations - All case studies, meaning they lack scientific rigor, are unique and abnormal meaning they are not always generaliseable Mainly an untestable theory Psychic determination denies our free will
Watson & Skinner - Behaviourist Approach 1913 Watson And Skinner (image/jpeg) A way of explaining behaviour in terms of what is observable and in terms of learning
Studies behaviour that can be observed & measured Basic processes are the same in all species Classical And Operant Conditioning (image/jpeg)
Strengths - Scientifically credible as observations are in highly controlled lab settings and helps for replication Principles have been applied to real life situations such as token economies Limitations - Ethical issues as many lab experiments were done on animals causing possible psychological harm Approach says all behaviour is determined by past experiences which have been conditioned Skinner suggests free will is an illusion
Albert Bandura - Social Learning Theory Bandura (image/jpeg) A way of explaining behaviour that includes direct and indirect reinforcement, combining SLT with the role of cognitive factors A development of the Behaviourist Approach
Behaviour is learned through observation and imitation as well as direct and indirect conditioning Banduras Mental Processes - 1. Attention - noticing behaviours 2. Retention - remembering behaviour 3. Motor Reproduction - Performing behaviour after observation 4. Motivation - will to perform dependant on rewards/punishment
Strengths - A more comprehensive account of learning Helps explain cultural differences Less deterministic than behaviourism Limitations - Lab experiments cause demand characteristics and low validity Banduras Bobo Doll study, aggression could be seen to involve hormonal factors
Cognitive Approach 1960's The Cognitive Approach (image/png) A focus on how our mental processes thoughts, perceptions and attention affect our behaviours
Internal mental processes should be studied scientifically and inferences on what is happening should be made indirectly The mind is like a computer Schema - a mental framework of beliefs developed through experience Inference - where conclusions are drawn about mental processes through observation Neuroscience - study of biological structures underpinning cognitive processes
Strengths - Lab experiments produce reliable & objective data Has influenced development of artificial intelligence and machines like robots Less deterministic than other approaches Limitations - Ignores emotion like anxiety on eye witness testimony Is an abstract & overly theoretical theory Artificial and may not be generaliseable
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