Travel & Tourism Revision

Flashcards by faithevalouise, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by faithevalouise almost 7 years ago


A Levels Travel & Tourism (AS ) Flashcards on Travel & Tourism Revision, created by faithevalouise on 05/03/2014.

Resource summary

Question Answer
Incoming Tourists. A tourist who is travelling INTO a country that isn't their home/ own country.
Example of Incoming Tourism? A tourist from the USA travelling into the UK.
Outbound Tourist. Tourist who LEAVES their own/ home country and travel to a different one.
Example of Outbound Tourism? A tourist leaving the UK to go to the USA
Domestic Tourist. A tourist who travels WITHIN their own country.
Example of Domestic Tourism? A tourist travelling from London to Cornwall for a holiday.
Business Tourist. Someone who travels with the purpose of business.
Example of Business Tourism? Someone travelling to London from Cheshire for a 3 day conference.
Leisure Tourism. The use of free time to travel for the purpose of enjoyment.
Example of Leisure Tourism? Travelling to Florida from the UK to visit theme parks for a family holiday.
Adventure Tourism. A holiday that includes exciting and unusual activities.
Example of Adventure Tourism? Scuba Diving off the Great Barrier Reef in Australia.
VFR Tourism. (Visiting Friends & Relatives) Someone who travels with the purpose of visiting friends or relatives and may stay with them.
Excursions. A short visit to an interesting place or activity, arranged by the organisation as part of the holiday.
Example of an Excursion? A trip out to a local waterpark.
Package Holiday. A holiday that is booked for the tourist, which includes transport, accommodation and transfers.
Independent Holiday. A holiday that the tourist books themselves separately.
Private Sector. Organisations who work to make money.
Example of a Private Sector Organisation. Virgin Atlantic.
Public Sector. Organisations that are owned by the government.
Example of a Public Sector Organisation. Tourist Information Centres.
Voluntary Sector. Organisations who don't work to make a profit.
Example of a Voluntary Sector Organisation. National Trust.
Small & Medium sized Organisations. When there is only 1, or not many of them.
Example of a Small or Medium sized Organisation. Chester Zoo.
Large Organisation. Organisations who have the greatest number of shares + largest influence.
Example of a Large Organisation. TUI.
New Technologies? - Online Booking - Online Payment - Online Check-In - Self Check-In - Apps
What Does Currency Fluctuation Mean? It is when a countries currency changes in value in relation to other currencies/ countries.
How can Currency Fluctuation Affect the Industry? It can have dramatic effects on the buying power of tourists abroad - e.g. the cost of accommodation.
Example of Currency Fluctuation? When Oil goes up, tour operators may charge a supplement fee on transport.
What does Government Legislation mean? Laws & Taxes that the government bring in.
How does Government Legislation affect the industry? Can have an impact on the host tourism country.
Example of Government Legislation? Airport Laws/ Security/ Customs.
What does Climate Change mean? Very gradual changes in weather patterns.
How might Climate Change affect the industry? Some natural disasters can become more frequent, meaning some destinations come become in danger.
What does Disease mean in T&T terms? When there has been an outbreak of illness + disease.
How Disease and Illness might affect the industry? People can be put off destinations if there has been outbreaks or illness.
Example of Diseases? Swine Flu - 2009 (ish)
What is a Natural Disaster? It is a natural event that can cause great damage or loss of life.
How might Natural Disasters affect the industry? Tourism can decline in countries as people may be scared/ put off/ unable to visit.
Example of Natural Disasters? Indian Ocean Tsunami - Boxing Day 2004
What is Civil Unrest? A war between 2 groups of people in the same country, or when people of a country try to overthrow their government.
How might Civil Unrest affect the industry? It can cause companies to loose out on money and can disrupt operations. Can also have an impact on tourists safety.
Examples of Civil Unrest? (That have affected Tourist Destinations?) Egypt Turkey Thailand
What does Economic Climate mean? How good or bad a country or destination is doing financially.
How might the Economic Climate affect the industry? The industry can be hit bad due to poor trading conditions.
Example of the Economic Climate. UK recession - 2007/08
How does Terrorism affect the industry? Stops people from wanting to take certain means of transport e.g. planes and can stop people from wanting to go to certain places.
Example of Terrorism. 9/11 Bombings - Twin Towers - NYC
What does Political Change mean? When parts of the Government Change or influence changes.
How can Political Change affect the industry? Can change how tourism operates in countries.
Example of Political Change. Turkish Government. China.
Positive Impacts on Host Environment? - More Money - Experiences - Better Infrastructure
Negative Impacts on Host Environment? - Pollution - Poverty - Damage to Habitats - Graffiti - Vandalism
4 Main Time Periods for Tourism? - Greek & Roman Civilisations - Industrial Revolution - Inter War Period - Post Second World War Developments
Greek and Roman Civilisation. - The first touists were spectators at the Olympics. - Lots of VFR based trips were being taken. - Accommodation providers were starting out, e.g. inns on routes
Industrial Revolution - Destinations were becoming branded e.g. ski and seaside resorts were developing - Classes of travel were designated e.g. first class - Long Haul 'ship trips' came around to destinations such as India. - Thomas Cook started doing excursions.
Inter War Period - Migration to the USA - Passports were introduced after WW1 - Mass Communications were improving - Domestic Tourism was developing; the 1st Butlins opened - Travellers were safer whilst travelling due to things like Vaccines
Post WW2 Developments - People had pleasures back after the war - Travel modes changed as cars and coaches came around - Annual 2 week paid factory holiday was established - Expansion of the YHA - People started to live longer = Grey Pound - Package holidays were becoming more popular - Increase in middle class consumers - More countries were opening up and welcoming tourists - People had more Disposable Income - Aircrafts and Railways were developing
What is a Motivating Factor? Something that influences people to travel/ visit a place.
Examples of Motivating Factors? - Physical and Personal - Cultural - Inter-Personal - Status & Prestige - Extrinsic - Intrinsic
What are Enabling Factors? Something that allows people to travel.
Examples of Enabling Factors? - Disposable Income - Transport Links -Infrastructure - Knowledge - Urbanisation
How do Socioeconomic factors affect the Industry? If you look at a population pyramid, you can get an idea on if a country is rich or poor and healthy or unhealthy for example.
Expectations and Fashions in the Industry? - Influences from the media - Rich people = New Exclusive places - All Inclusive - Influenced by Advertisements and Promotion - Influenced by VFR
Tour Operators. - TUI - Thomas Cook
Who is Thomas Cook? Thomas Cook and My Travel merged in 2007.
Example of Vertical Integration in Thomas Cook? - Thomas Cook (TO) - Co Op Travel (TA) - Thomas Cook Airline (TO)
Who is TUI? First Choice and TUI merged in 2007. (TUI took over Thomson in 2000)
Example of Vertical Integration in TUI? - TUI (TO) - First Choice (TA) - Thomson Airways (TO)
What are Transport Operators/ Principles? An organisation who transport goods or people to destinations.
Cruise Lines. - Royal Caribbean - Celebrity - Carnival - Princess - Viking - Cunard - P&O - Saga - Costa
Budget Airlines. - Ryanair - Jet2 - Easy Jet - BMI Baby - Flybe - Monarch (?)
Other Airlines. - British Airways - Virgin Atlantic - Qantas - Emirates
Train Operators. - Virgin Trains - Eurostar - Arriva - First - Northern Rail - CrossCountry
Theme Parks. - Drayton Manor - Alton Towers - Chessington WOA - Thorpe Park - Lego Land - Light Water Valley - Paultons Park - Flamingo Land Resort
UK Zoos/ Safari Parks. - Chester Zoo - Blackpool Zoo - Whipsnade Zoo - London Zoo - Edinburgh Zoo - Longleat Safari Park - Knowsley Safari Park - West Midlands Safari Park
Other Attractions: BUILT - Tower of London - London Eye - Natural History Museum - National Gallery - Tate Modern - Buckingham Palace
Other Attractions: Natural - River Thames - Snowdon - Cheddar Gorge - Loch Ness
Accommodation Providers - Hilton - Premier Inn - Travelodge - Holiday Inn - Thistle - DeVere
What are Ancillary Service Providers? Ancillary Services are services that are additional to support the Industry. They help the main providers operate more efficiently.
Examples of Ancillary Services? - Travel Insurance - Tickets (attraction/ event) - Car Hire - Airport Parking - Money Exchange - Customs - Boarder Control
Definition Intangible. Can't be seen or touched; has no physical presence. E.g. customer service
Define Perishable. The fact that services cannot be produced and stockpiled (inventoried) before consumption: they exist only at the time of their production.
Perishable Example. Seats on an Aeroplane. If there were 100 seats on a plane and only 90 had been sold, then those 10 seats cant be stored for a future flight, they would need to be sold. In order to sell these tickets they would have to lower the price, advertise
Define Vertical Integration. Vertical Integration is when one company on one level of the chain buys or merges with another company on a different level of the chain. They make up the chain of distribution. For example, a tour operator buying a travel agents or airline.
Show full summary Hide full summary


Bowlby's Theory of Attachment
Jessica Phillips
Milgram (1963) Behavioural study of Obediance
Asch Study and Variations
AS Philosophy Exam Questions
Summer Pearce
Gilded Age
Evaluation of Conformity