Definitions in Memory


AS level Psychology Flashcards on Definitions in Memory, created by Melissa O'Mahony on 03/22/2017.
Melissa O'Mahony
Flashcards by Melissa O'Mahony, updated more than 1 year ago
Melissa O'Mahony
Created by Melissa O'Mahony over 7 years ago

Resource summary

Question Answer
Anxiety A state of emotional and physical arousal. The emotions include having worried thoughts and feelings of tensions. Physical changes include an increased heart rate and sweatiness. Anxiety is a normal reaction to stressful situations, but can affect the accuracy and detail of eyewitness testimony.
Capacity The amount of information that can be held in a memory store.
Central Executive (CE) The component of the working memory model that coordinates the activities of the three subsystems in memory. It also allocates processing resources to those activities.
Coding The format in which information is stored in the various memory stores.
Cognitive Interview (CI) A method of interviewing eyewitnesses to help them retrieve more accurate memories. It uses four main techniques, all based on well-established psychological knowledge of human memory - report everything, reinstate the context, reverse the order, and change perspective.
Cue A 'trigger' of information that allows us to access a memory. Such cues may be meaningful or may be indirectly linked by being encoded at the time of learning. For example, cues may be external (environmental context) or internal (mood or degree of drunkenness).
Duration The length of time information can be held in memory.
Episodic Buffer (EB) The component of the working memory model that brings together material from other subsystems into a single memory rather than separate strands. It also provides a bridge between working memory and long-term memory.
Episodic Memory A long-term memory store for personal events. It includes memories of when the events occurred and of the people, objects, places and behaviours involved. Memories from this store have to be retrieved consciously and with effort. Forgetting because one memory blocks another, causing one or both memories to be distorted or forgotten.
Eyewitness Testimony (EWT) The ability of people to remember the detail of events, such as accidents and crimes, which they themselves have observed. Accuracy of EWT can be affected by factors such as misleading information, leading questions and anxiety.
Interference Forgetting because one memory blocks another, causing one or both memories to be distorted or forgotten.
Leading Question A question which, because of the way it is phrased, suggests a certain answer.
Long-Term Memory (LTM) The permanent memory store. Coding is mainly semantic, it has unlimited capacity and can store memories for up to a lifetime.
Misleading Information Incorrect information given to the eyewitness after the event. It can take many forms, such as leading questions and post-event discussion between co-witnesses and/or other people.
Multi-Store Model (MSM) A representation of how memory works in terms of three stores called sensory register, short-term memory (STM) and long-term memory (LTM). It also describes how information is transferred from one store to another, how it is remembered and how it is forgotten.
Phonological Loop (PL) The component of the working memory model that processes information in terms of sound. This includes both written and spoken material. It's divided into the phonological store and the articulatory process.
Post-Event Discussion (PED) Occurs when there is more than one witness to an event. Witnesses may discuss what they have seen with co-witnesses or with other people. This may influence the accuracy of each witness's recall of the event.
Proactive Interference (PI) Forgetting occurs when older memories, already stored, disrupt the recall of newer memories. The degree of forgetting is greater when the memories are similar.
Procedural Memory A long-term memory store for our knowledge of how to do things. This includes our memories of learned skills.
Retrieval Failure A form of forgetting. It occurs when we don't have the necessary cues to access memory. The memory is available but not accessible unless a suitable cue is provided.
Retroactive Interference (RI) Forgetting occurs when newer memories disrupt the recall of older memories already stored. The degree of forgetting is again greater when the memories are similar.
Semantic Memory A long-term memory store for our knowledge of the world. This includes facts ad our knowledge of what words and concepts mean. These memories usually also need to be recalled deliberately.
Sensory Register The memory stores for each of our five senses, such as vision (iconic) and hearing (echoic). Coding in the iconic sensory register is visual and in the echoic sensory register is acoustic. The capacity of sensory registers is huge and information lasts for a very short time.
Short-Term Memory (STM) The limited-capacity memory store. Coding is mainly acoustic, capacity is between 5 and 9 items on average, duration is between about 18 and 30 seconds.
Visuo-Spatial Sketchpad (VSS) The component of the working memory model that processes visual and spatial information in a mental space often called our inner eye.
Working Memory Model (WMM) A representation of short-term memory (STM). It suggests that short-term memory is a dynamic processor of different types of information using sub-units coordinated by a central decision-making system.
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