Topic 4 - Conservation of Biodiversity - key words

Sarah-Karolina V
Flashcards by Sarah-Karolina V, updated more than 1 year ago
Sarah-Karolina V
Created by Sarah-Karolina V over 7 years ago
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International Baccalaureate Environmental Systems & Societies Flashcards on Topic 4 - Conservation of Biodiversity - key words, created by Sarah-Karolina V on 05/04/2014.

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Question Answer
Biodiversity the amount of biological or living diversity per unit area
species diversity the variety of species per unit area. - this includes the number of species present and their relative abundance
habitat diversity is the range of different habitats or number of ecological niches per unit area in an ecosystem or biome
what does conservation of habitat diversity lead to? conservation of species and genetic diversity
genetic diversity is the range of genetic material present in a gene pool or population of species
natural selection charles darwin developed the theory of evolution by natural selection. this explained how the Earth's biodiversity has arisen
process of natural selection * Speciation- when species are formed by gradual change over a long time * when populations of the same species become separated, they cannot interbreed and may start to diverge if the environments they inhabit change * separation may have geographical or reproductive causes; humans speed up speciation by artificial selection of plants and animals and by genetic engineering * over time the population gradually changes= natural selection * “the survival of the fittest”
isolation the process by which two population become separated by geographical, behavioural, genetic or reproductive factors.
speciation the process through which new species are formed
evolution the cumulative, gradual change in the genetic characteristics of successive generations of a species.
geographical isolation cause by a physical barrier that leads to populations becoming separated eventually leading to speciation. - cause can be ; plate activity, formation on moutons, seas, lakes, rivers and deserts
Physical Barriers (examples of species and speciation) - 3 Large flightless birds (e.g. emu, ostrich, rhea, cassowary) only found in Africa, Australia, South America * cichlid fish in the lakes of East Africa, Lake Victoria, Lake Tanganyika, Lake Malawi * Llamas and camels (llamas in South America and camels in Africa and central Asia)
examples of Reproductive isolation *behavioural isolation - courtship rituals * mechanical isolation - physical difference prevent mating
3 types of plates activity constructive, destructive, collision
8 Factors that lead to loss of biodiversity Natural hazards, loss of habitat, fragmentation of habitat, pollution, overexploitation, introducing non-native (exotic species), spread of disease, modern agricultural practices
What makes a species prone to extinction? *narrow geographical range *small population size of reclining numbers *low population densities and large territories *few populations of the species a large body *low reproductive potential *specialized feeders or niche requirements *hunted for food or sport minimum viable population *size: that is needed for a species to survive in the wild is a figure that scientists and conservationists consider
example of a Recovered species Australian saltwater crocodile § 18 out of 23 were once endangered § listed as protected species in Australia in 1971 § overexploited for skin (leather), meat and body parts through illegal hunting, poaching and smuggling § restored through ranching and closed-cycle farming
Example of an extinct species o Thylacine (Tasmanian tiger) § life expectancy of 12-14 years § habitat: open forests and grassland § competed with dingoes on the mainland of Australia § hunted by farmers whose stock of sheep was the species’ prey § hunting, poisoning, and trapping § shooting parties organized for tourists’ entertainment § last one has been killed in 1930 § now introduced dogs have taken over the ecological role of the thylacine
example of an endangered species o Rafflesia § tropical parasitic plant in the forests of South-East Asia § single sexed § pollination must be carried out when the plant in bloom § vulnerable because they need specific conditions to survive § deforestation and logging destroy their habitat § now there are Rafflesia sanctuaries
aims of the IUCN * maintaining essential life support systems * preserving genetic biodiversity *Using species and ecosystems in a sustainable way
Buffer Zones Contains habitats that are either managed or undisturbed
species based conservation focuses on vulnerable species and raising their profile.
CITES convention on the international trade in endangered - agreement aimed at preventing trade of endangered species
3 advantages of CITES - supported by many countries - it list many species - proved successful for many species
3 disadvantages of CITES - enforcement is difficult - fines are relatively small - support by some countries is limited and ineffectual
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