Biology: Lung Disease

Sarah H-V
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AQA Biology Unit 1 Chapter 4

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Sarah H-V
Created by Sarah H-V over 5 years ago
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Biology: Lung Disease
1 Tuberculosis
1.1 Transmission

Annotations:

  • Spread by droplets of water/mucous Inhaled into another person's respiratory system
1.2 Bacterium - Mycobacterium tuberculosis
1.3 Course of Infection

Annotations:

  • The bacteria can grow and divide in the upper regions of the lungs. Phagocytes can engulf and digest the bacteria. They can become encased in a tubercule. The bacteria can destroy the alveoli, causing fibrosis and scar tissue. The damage leads to less diffusion of gases, due to less surface area and larger diffusion pathway.  
1.4 Symptoms

Annotations:

  • Persistant cough Tiredness Loss of apetite Fever Coughing up blood
2 Pulmonary Fibrosis
2.1 Scarring of the epithelium of the lungs
2.1.1 Irreversibly thickened
2.1.2 Larger diffusion pathway
2.2 The volume of air the lungs can contain is reduced
2.3 Reduces the elasticity of the lungs
2.3.1 Lack of stretch and recoil
2.3.1.1 Air cannot be expulsed so lung ventilation is difficult
2.4 Symptoms

Annotations:

  • Shortness of breath Fatigue Chest pain Chronic cough 
3 Emphysema
3.1 Symptoms

Annotations:

  • Shortness of breath Chronic cough Fatigue 
3.2 Breaking down of the alveoli
3.2.1 Surface area of the lungs is reduced
3.2.2 Elastin break down
3.2.2.1 Lack of stretch and recoil
3.2.2.1.1 More difficult to expel air
3.3 Caused by smoking
4 Asthma
4.1 Caused by allergens
4.2 Also triggered by air pollution, exercise, cold air...
4.3 What happens:

Annotations:

  • Allergens cause WBCs to move to site of infection.  Release histamine Lining of airways inflammed.  Cells produce more mucus. Bronchioles contract, constricting the airways. Airways in turn become blocked 
4.4 Symptoms

Annotations:

  • Difficulty breathing Tight chest pain  Wheezing Coughing

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