MAC Interviewing Suspects

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Flashcards by lauurajayyne, updated more than 1 year ago
lauurajayyne
Created by lauurajayyne almost 7 years ago
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OCR A2 Options in Applied Psychology, Forensic, Making a Case, Interviewing Suspects

Resource summary

Question Answer
the purpose of an interview with a suspect is usually referred to as ____ and it's purpose is to establish a suspect's ____ or ____. usually reffered to as interrogation, to establish guilt or innocence
effective interviews will not only find truth but also...? enable future prosecution
police need to be able to? and avoid? detect lies and avoid gaining false confession
a ____ is a device that measures changes in ____ ____ and ____ ____ when the suspect becomes tense (i.e. lying). polygraph, skin conductibity, heart rate
drugs like ____ ____ are advertised as "truth serums" but they only make the suspect ____ and ____. soduim pentathol, relaxed and careless
due to ____ constraints, it is difficult to invesigate how ____ police detect lies. Under law, a suspect is ____ until proven ____. ethical constraints, how accurately, innocent until proven guilty
to acknowledge initial assumption of innocence, before a suspect is arrested & interviewed, they are given the following caution: "You do not have to say anything, but it may harm your defence if you do not mention something when questionned which you later rely on in a Court. Anything you do say may be given in evidence."
Mann Aim? to test police officers' ability to distinguish truths and lies during interviews with suspects
Mann Method? field experiment, shown 54 clips of 14 suspects, lasted 6-145 seconds. head and torso shown for expression and movement. officers completed Q about experience detecting liars. indicated whether they thought suspects' statements lies or truth & how confident in decision. asked to list cues used to detect liars
Mann Paricipants? 99 mostly male Kent police officers, mean age 34.3, majority detectives
Mann Results? most common cues: persons gaze, movements, vaguness, fidgeting, contradictions in story. officers able to detect lie 66.2% time, truth 63.6% time, both significant (p<0.05). interviewing experience positively correlated with ability to detect lies/truth
Mann Conclusions? police officers good at detecting lies, especially if have experience allowing identification of key body language cues. make erros in this as not an exact science
since _ _ _ _ Act 1984 all interviews have to be recorded on machines that record in triplicate PACE = Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984
record in triplicate? one copy sealed in front of suspect and not opened until trial. one is for suspect's solicitor, last is a working copy for police.
record in triplicate ensures that a suspect is ____ from being ____ by the officers' interrogation techniques into making a ____ ____. protected from being pressured, into making a false confession
interrogations are ____ in nature and suspect often told no doubt of their guilt accusatory in nature
interrogator begins with series of ____ to the suspects that require little or no response. often use a variety of ____ methods such as leaving suspect in ____ before interrogation series of statements, persuasion method, leaving suspect in isolation
isolation likely to increase levels of ____ meaning could "___ __ ___" and confess to crime. this method is mostly used when officer is? levels of anxiety, "make a slip", when officer reasonably certain of suspect's guilt
interrogation works on what two prinicples? (1) frightening suspect into giving confession by exaggerating strength of case against them & seriousness of crime (2) by tricking suspect into giving false confession
Inbau "The Reid's 'nine steps' of interrogation in brief" are? Direct confrontation, theme development, handling denials, overcoming objectives, procurement and retention of suspects attention, handling suspect's mood, presenting an alternative Q, suspect orally confess, convert oral confession to written one.
Inbau Direct Confrontation? suspect is told with certainity that they committed the offence and are persuaded of the advantages of confessing
Inbau Theme Development? Interrogator offers various "themes" that will allow the suspects to shift the blame away from them. often they are "face saving excuses" that allow the suspects to accept physical responsibility for the offence
Inbau Handling Denials? suspect is persistently interrupted to prevent their constant denial of involvement, usually by two interrogator using the "good cop - bad cop" routine
Inbau Overcoming object? interrogator needs to ignore any reasons the suspect gives for why they are not guilty and eventually the suspect will give up trying and so make a confession
Inbau Procurement and retention of suspects attention? interrogator needs to reduce the the psychological distance by moving closer to them, making eye contact or using the suspect's first name. guilty suspects will be more attentive to the interrogator.
Inbau Handling suspect's mood? the interrogator needs to be understanding and sympathetic, urging the suspect to tell the truth by appealing to their sense of decency and honor. once they respond to this, the interrogator focuses on the reasons why the crime happened
Inbau Presenting an alternative question? give two alternate reasons for why the crime happened, both highly incriminating but worded so one is face saving to provide an incentive to confess. this is the most important point of the interrogation as the suspect is pressured to chose one of the two alternatives
Inbau Suspect orally confesses? once one of the alternatives has been accepted, develop this into a detailed confession that is self-incriminating. interrogator needs to be alone with suspect
Inbau Convert oral confession to a written one? no delays in creating the written statement so that the suspect doesn't have time to discover legal consequences and retract their statement
estimated more than __% of crimes are solved by confession. significant number of confessions result in wrong convictions obtained through ___ questioning 80% of crimes, through coercive questioning
confessions regarded as most obvious evidence of ____, they relieve ____ for jury and judge more than other evidene evidence of guilt, they relieve doubt
confessions possibly powerful due to observers misattributing cause of confession being due to person (e.g. ____) while discounting situational factors (e.g. ____) being due to person (actual guilt explained through an individual), situational factors (possible coercion explained through situation)
in Great Britain, false confessions second to mistaken identities as case of wrongful confession, suggesting? what people say is more influential than why they say it
Kassin's 3 types of confession? Voluntary confession, coerced complaint confession, coerced internalised confession
voluntary confession? offered in the absence of any obvious pressure
Coerced complaint confession? which is elicited by forceful or persistent questioning and which suspects confess to escape from a stressful situation
Coerced internalised confession? where the person becomes at least temporary persuaded during interrogation that they did commit the crime they're accused of
Gudjohnnson Aim? to report a case of false confession from a young man who was susceptible to the pressure of interrogation
Gudjohnnson Method? review of case study of normal 17 year old FC, accused of two murders, of average intelligence, suffered no mental illness, personality not obviously abnormal
Gudjohnnson Background? two women battered to death, savings gone, evidence of sexual assault. FC arrested due to inconsistencies in his account of movement and spending more money. denied access to solicitor, later wrote statement incriminating himself
Gudjohnnson Police Interviews? FC 1st interview 14hrs, no breaks. FC originally argued nowhere near scene, but after repeatedly accused of lying he agreed. Qs used were leading & accusatory, many suggested sexually impotent FC found distressing. 2nd interview retracted statement in front of solicitor, later confessed again under pressure about failure to have successful relationships
Gudjohnnson Psychiatric Examination? in prison, showed no mental illness, scored 10 0n Gudjohnnson Suggestibility Scale, abnormal in this respect, IQ 94, Eysenck's Personality Inventory showed stable extrovert
Gudjohnnson Conclusions? case of coerced complaint false confession, FC gave into pressure to escape intolerable situation. shows can happen to anyone. FC released after 1yr when real culprit admitted to crime. FC personality changed, experience hardened him, more self confident
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