Autism

Craig Wilkinson
Flashcards by Craig Wilkinson, updated more than 1 year ago
Craig Wilkinson
Created by Craig Wilkinson almost 4 years ago
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Psychology (Development) Flashcards on Autism, created by Craig Wilkinson on 04/13/2017.

Resource summary

Question Answer
What are the 3 primary features that characterise Autism? 1) Impairments in social behaviour and relatedness to others 2) Impairment in verbal and nonverbal communication 3) Narrowing of interests coupled with resistance to change.
Define Asperger's syndrome. Part of the Autistic spectrum; the features of Autism but in the absence of language decay.
How many people does Autism affect? 1/100 in the UK, 62/10,000 worldwide. 4 boys : 1 girls.
What are the key elements of the theory of mind hypothesis? Autistic children fail to attribute mental states to self and others, which explains their lack of pretend play. Tested using false belief tasks.
What did the Sally-Ann task find? 85% clinically normal 4/5 ys passed, 86% Down's syndrome 10/11ys passed, 80% Autism group 11ys failed.
TOM universal? NO. 20% passed the Sally-Ann task, and it was found that Autistic children with a higher mental age were more likely to pass.
TOM unique? NO. Children with visual/hearing impairments also had difficulty.
What are the key elements of the inflexibility of thought hypothesis? A deficit in executive functions such as working memory, mental flexibility and self-control, which accounts for non-social aspects.
Describe the Wisconsin Sorting Task and its findings. Cards are sorted to 1 rule, which is deduced from feedback; the rule then changes during the task. The Autistic group performed more poorly compared to the control group.
IOF universal? NO - mixed evidence. Found between 96-50% of Autistic group performed less well than the control group.
IOF unique? NO. Participants with ADHD, schizophrenia, OCD and Tourette's performed similarly.
What are the key elements of weak central coherence? A superior local processing with a bias for featural and local information, and relative failure to extract gist.
Define capture by meaning. A tendency to overlook fine detail brought about by attention to the global meaning of a stimulus or event.
Describe the embedded figures test and what it found. Participants instructed to find an abstract shape within a more complex shape. The Autism group performed better than typically developing.
WCC universal? NO - e.g. 45% of Autism sample did not show processing bias
WCC unique? NO - also shown in groups with Williams syndrome, Schizophrenia and depression.
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