PA WEEK 4: Assessment of Children

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Flashcards by jfielke, updated more than 1 year ago
jfielke
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University Honours in Psychology (PA) Flashcards on PA WEEK 4: Assessment of Children, created by jfielke on 10/04/2015.

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In general, what do you need to consider when testing children? 1. Establish and maintain rapport with children 2. Use effective listening and interviewing techniques appropriate for interviewing parents, children, and teachers 3. Evaluate the psychometric properties of tests 4. Select an appropriate assessment battery 5. Administer and score tests and other assessment tools by following standardised procedures 6. Observe and evaluate behaviour 7. Perform informal assessments 8. Interpret assessment results 9. Use assessment findings to develop effective interventions 10. Communicate assessment findings effectively both orally and in writing 11. Adhere to ethical standards 12. Read and interpret research in clinical and psychoeducational assessment
What are the differences between assessing adults and children? Vulnerable population Practitioner should be highly competent Rapport is essential Check that tests are validated and normed for the age group Observing behaviour and interactions with others, at school is very important to guide clinical judgement, less advanced language skills sensitivity in interpretation and communication
Why do we assess children? guide diagnosis determine eligibility monitor progress
What are the three major externalising disorders in childhood? Oppositional defiant disorder Conduct disorder Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
What is externalising behaviour? consists of disruptive behaviour in the home or school
What is internalising behaviour? consists of negative, problematic behaviours directed toward the self
What are the symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder? Negativistic, hostile and defiant behaviour > = 6 months >= 4 of the following signs: ANGRY / IRRITABLE MOOD - Often loses temper - Often touchy or easily annoyed - Often angry or resentful ARGUMENTATIVE / DEFIANT BEHAVIOUR - Often argues with adults - Often actively defies or refuses to comply with adults or with rules - Often deliberately annoys people - Often blames others for mistakes or misbehaviours VINDICTIVENESS - Often spiteful or vindictive
What are the symptoms of conduct disorder? Repetitive and persistent violations of the basic rights of others or age-appropriate societal norms or rules > = 12 months of at least 3 of 15 criteria AND > = 1 in past 6 months: •Aggression to people and animals •Destruction of property •Deceitfulness or theft •Serious Violations of Rules
What are the symptoms of ADHD? Either 1 or 2. > = 6 symptoms for > = 6 months, maladaptive and age-inappropriate, before 12, across settings 1. Inattention (eg. poor attention to detail, careless, sustaining attention, appears not to listen, fails to finish work) 2. Hyperactivity (fidgets, leaves seat, runs/climbs, “on the go”, talks x’sly, can’t play quietly); impulsivity (blurts out answers, difficulty waiting, interrupts conversations)
What is the prevalence of ADHD? 3-5% prevalence 3:1 boys to girls
What are the four common co-morbidities of ADHD? Oppositional defiant disorder Conduct Disorders Learning Disorders Mood and anxiety disorders
What is ADHD? A group of chronic disorders that begin in childhood and can persist into adulthood Common problems are inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity It affects self-esteem, personal relationships, and performance at school or work
What are the treatments for ADHD? Psychostimulant drugs counselling special classroom accommodations family and community support
What are the types of anxiety disorders?  Separation anxiety disorder (SAD)  Generalised anxiety disorder (GAD)  Panic disorder  Specific phobia  Social Anxiety Disorder (Social phobia & selective mutism)  Anxiety states due to a medical disorder or drugs  Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)  Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)  Acute stress disorder
What are the features of anxiety disorders? Anxiety Intense negative emotion (apprehension, uncertainty) and fear (perceived danger) Perceived threats/risk of harm to self or others Hyper-arousal Avoidance behaviour Interpersonal constriction
What are the developmental features (or differences in children) of anxiety disorders? Wider range of symptoms concern about harm to attachment figures
What is the prevalence of anxiety disorders in childhood? Most common disorder in childhood 6 – 12% (overall prevalence) 1 in 6 have AD or sub-clinical features girls > boys; particularly in adolescents
What are the most common anxiety disorders for children under 13? Separation anxiety disorder simple phobias mutism
What are the most common anxiety disorders in adolescents? Generalised anxiety disorder panic disorder social phobia
What are the common co-morbidities and risks for anxiety disorder? depression ADHD childhood anxiety is a risk factor for adult anxiety
What are some of the main genogram symbols? 911e990c-e5e2-49b0-9dd8-0513080d2d1f.png (image/png)
What are some formal (standardised) methods of assessment? Uni-dimensional (eg. Depression, anxiety scales), multi-dimensional scales (eg. CBCL; SBS; PIY) Multiple informants Mental status examination Projective tests (semi-structured drawings, CAT/TAT, Rorschach) Specialised structured interviews (DISC) Behavioural recording techniques in natural settings (high frequency; aggression, social withdrawal, participation) eg. interval recording, narrative recording, event recording
What are some informal (unstandardised) methods of assessment? Interviewing Free drawings, wishes, dreams, play, etc.
What are the similarities between parent, child and adolescent interviews? Use observations open questions focus is the child and family confidentiality discussed interest, concern, empathy
What are the differences between parent, child and adolescent interviews? Initial anxieties need to be addressed in the child interviews The clinician may have anxieties about a child interview high level of rapport balance of leading and following the child the goal of getting to know the child to help them child might need more prompting and checking in around emotions ask about how they feel about the referral and their problems find out about school, home, social, self and other may use play equipment and structured, free, or semi-structured play may use drawing
What are the major types of projective tests used for children? Three wishes Children's apperception test (animal cards) Thematic apperception test (human cards)
How useful are the projective tests for children? can provide another source of information can show child's cognitive biases can reveal child's perspective on the relationships in the family not useful as a personality test, not reliable interpretations are subjective
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