Psychology - Sociocultural level of analysis

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International Baccalaureate (IB) Psychology HL Flashcards on Psychology - Sociocultural level of analysis , created by Erica Mauro on 05/20/2017.
Erica Mauro
Flashcards by Erica Mauro, updated more than 1 year ago
Erica Mauro
Created by Erica Mauro almost 7 years ago
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Resource summary

Question Answer
Compliance A form of social influence involving direct requests from one person to another
Foot-in-the-door technique Getting a person to make a commitment by first asking them to do a small request followed by a larger request
Lowballing Changing an offer to make it less attractive to the person after they have agreed to it
Foot in the door study Dickerson et al. (1992) Freedman and Fraser (1966)
Lowballing study Burger and Cornelius (2003)
Conformity Type of social influence involving change in belief or behaviuor in order to fit in with a group
Two types of conformity Public: behave in a social acceptable way Private: you accept social norms but only you know it
In-group An exclusive, typically small, group of people with a shared interest or identity
Out-group The people who don't belong in a specific in-group
Informative influence when you look at the behaviours of others who are also in the same or similar situation to see how they behave
Normative influence Influence resulting in the desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval
Social norms The rules for how people should act in a given group or society
Risky shift The observed tendency for people to make more daring decisions when they are in groups, than when they are alone
Group polarization The tendency for a group to make decisions that are more extreme than the decisions members make on their own
Social comparison your own self concept or the social concept of "another person" becomes closely meshed in with perceptions of group membership
Social categorization The process of classifying people into groups based on similar characteristics, whether it is nationality, age, gender or some other trait
Social identification The process by which you or another perosn identify with an in-group or an out-group more overtly
Social comparison theory Centers on the belief that there is a drive within individuals to gain accurate self-evaluations.
Social identity theory The ways in which people perceive and categorize themselves
Groupthink The practice of thinking or making decisions as a group, resulting typically in unchallenged, poor-quality decision-making.
Social learning theory The assumption that people learn behaviuors, attitudes, emotional reactions and norms through direct experiences but also through observing others
Modelling learning through the observation of other people whcih may lead to imitation if the behaviour leads to desirable consequences
Reinforcement learn consequences of behaviour from watching what happens to other humans. once information is stored it serves as a guide to future actions
What conditions are necessary for social learning to take place? Attention, Retention, Motivation, Potential
Social learning theory study Albert Bandura (1965) The Bobo doll experiment
Other evidence for Social learning theory Charlton et al. (2002) Observation of the introduction of televisions in a remote community
Stereotype A widely held but fixed and oversimplified image or idea of a particular type of person or thing. Generalisations about a group of people.
Schema A cognitive system which helps us organize and make sense of information
Confirmation bias poeple will pay attention to information that confirms thier belief
Social cognitive theory stereotypes from because our social world is complex and provides us with too much information. Our ability to process all of it is limited so we categorize it
How are stereotypes formed? from our social and cultural environment. they are contextual not a reusult of individual cognitive processing.
Strengths of SIT Intergroup conflict is not required for discrimination. Has been applied to understanding behaviours such as in-gruop favouritism, conformity to in-group norms and stereotping.
limitations of SIT Can't fully explain how in-group favouritism may result in violent behaviuor towards out-groups. We have a lot of social identities- it doesnt predict which one will determine our behaviour. it isnt natural
Time orientation A preference toward past, present, or future thinking. It effects how a culture values time and believes they can control it.
Etic approaches it addresses the universals of human behaviour, what all humans have in common
Emic approaches Not interested in cross-cultural comparisons but rather in cultural specific phenomena
Individualistic cultures Individualist cultures, e.g United States and Western Europe, emphasize personal achievement regardless of the expense of group goals, resulting in a strong sense of competition.
Collectivist cultures Collectivist cultures, such as those of China, Korea, and Japan, emphasize family and work group goals above individual needs or desires.
Objective culture Visible characteristics such as dress style, use of various technologies and cuisine
Subjective culture Refers to the beliefs, norms and values groups consider important enough to pass on to future generations.
What is cultural dimension The perspective of a culture based on values and cultural norms. Dimensions work on a continuum e.g a culture is never 100% collectivistic or individualistic, but are different levels with a preference for one set of behaviours over another.
What are the 5 cultural dimensions? Individualism vs collectivism, power distance, uncertainty avoidance, masculinity/femininity and he later added a final dimension - long-term vs. short-term orientation.
Long term orientation Values truth, persistence, loyalty and patience.
Short term orientation Impatient, present orientated and strive for immediate resuts.
Culture A set of sttitudes, behaviours and symbols shared by a large group of people usually communicated from one generation to another
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