Biodiversity key terms

07setchfields
Flashcards by 07setchfields, updated more than 1 year ago
07setchfields
Created by 07setchfields almost 7 years ago
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Flashcards on Biodiversity key terms, created by 07setchfields on 05/22/2014.

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Question Answer
Genetic Divesity The diversity of genes found within a species e.g a type of plant such as cereal.
Species diversity The variety of plant/animal species within a given area. It is a measure of species richness.
Ecosystem Diversity The variety of different ecosystems and the habitats surrounding them.
Hotspot An area of high biodiversity e.g. The Amazon Rainforest
Endenism The ecological state of being unique to a location such as an island or nation. e.g. Lima's to Madagascar
Iconic Species Species such as panda's and snow leopards which are endangered but protect because of their beauty.
Keystone Species Species which are key to the ecosystems and food chain and the provision of services such as pollination, such as Bee's.
Deforestation The cutting down of trees to create land for development of farming.
Desertification The process of fertile land becoming desert, typically as a result of drought or overuse.
Alien species A non-indigenous species in an area, which could jepradises other animals in the area. e.g. red squirel in england.
Eutrophication When the soil become overloaded with nutrients, also known as nutrient over-loading.
Maximum sustainable yield The greatest harvest that can be taken and leave the ecosystem intact, this is usually exceed by commercial activities.
Optimum Sustainable yield is usually used a compromise because it is a lower level of yield and will not destroy the appearance of recreational value of the ecosystem.
Key players in management individual farmers, campaigners and consumers, artists, painters and writers, locals, NGOs, scientific research NGO's, local governments, national governments and transportation companies.
Disparity A great difference in species- so there would be high amounts of diversity such as in the Amazon rainforest
Biome a large naturally occurring community of flora and fauna occupying a major habitat, e.g. forest or tundra
Biomass the total weight of living matter per area (dry mass)
Biosphere the thin veneer of living material on the planets surface
What are three global threats to boidiversity Global warming, desertification and poverty and food insecurity.
What area's are most at risk? Cold- global warming Small islands- tourism and sea level rise Forest- deforestation, tourism and development
Carbon cycle The movement of carbon through different processes, from growing to being eaten or used then decay and growth into new product to be used again.
What are two contrasting management schemes for biodiversity? CAMPFIRE in Zimbabwe and Southern ocean fisheries treaty
Ecoregions Large areas define by it features and environment, like the Amazon, conserving them would achieve a great deal would be expensive and difficult to police.
Scale of Management strategies Protection- Scientific preservation with no access for the public Middle- National parks- Extractive Reserves Exploitation- Zoos and gene banks
Futures for Biodiversity Approach 1. Market first Profit driven future, continued degradation of biodiversity, the economy comes first.
Future for Biodiversity Approach 2 Policy First A greater balance between human and ecological well-being but humans are pt first by short-termists policy-makers and ecosystems are protected when possible.
Future for Biodiversity approach 3 Security First 'Me first' the focus is on maintaining the wealth of the few in a very unequal world; IGO like the UN ae viewed with suspicion; the environment is there to be exploited.
Future for Biodiversity approach 4 Sustainability first equal weight is given to human and ecological well-being, and thinking is long term to gradually recover lost ecological ground.
Value of Coral Reefs: St lucia and Tobago case study They provide: biodiversity, shoreline protection, Food, Medicine, Aquarium trade, building materials, education and research and tourism.
Invasive species- The Galapagos Have high endemism Alien species were introduced by the locals to make a living from fishing and tourism, 60% of the 180 endemic species are considered threatened.
Galapagos Part 2 What they're doing to help Actions being taken to preserve the biodiversity, they're trying to eradicate the introduced rodents, dogs and feral cats. Other pressures on the island include tourists trying to see the island Darwin saw when 1st visited
Southern Ocean Fisheries Thanks to the treaty the fisheries and sustainably managed. Before the ocean was overfished by fleets of sovient trawlers. Led to the extinction of species of fish.
Southern Ocean Fisheries Part 2 Three part approach to calculating fishing yield 1. the single species- limits set for harvesting individual species. 2. Ecosystem approach- considered the species on its own and as part of an ecosystem. 3. precautionary approach- tries to model the consequences of any planned expansions
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