Birth of Weimar Republic in 1918,
Friedrich Ebert, Social Democratic Party as head
WWI legacy of defeat & Treaty of Versailles. November Criminals. Stabbed in the back myth.
Hitler joins German Worker's Party in 1919
Weimar Republic proved politically weak, left-wing communist rebellion and also right-wing conservative and nationalist opposition
Spartacist Revolt in 5th 1919. Strike, occupied public buldings. 10th January, Freikorps attacked captured occupied buildings. Killed Leaders - Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht
Kapp Putsch of March 1920. 12,000 Freikorps took over the government in Berlin. after a general strike from the Left wing, the Kapp government absconded and Ebert's government was reinstalled.
'White Terror' 1920-22. Political assassinations, many by the Freikorps.
Hitler's Beer Hall Putsch in November 1923. First attempt of Nazi party to show strength. 55,000 proletariats, and 600 Stormtroopers Hitler burst into a meeting held by Bavarian leader Ritter Von Kahr in the Munich Beer Hall.
Result: Reinforced Weimar Republic as a struggling parliamentary democracy.
Coup fails, but Army emerged as real authority in Germany.
German revolution very limited, as Ebert had made agreements with the army and also the old elites. Harmful for future of democracy
Under General Ludendorff’s influence, at noon Hitler marched through Munich with 2,000 stormtroopers to win public support. This was a failure with 14/16 Nazis dead, and hundreds more injured.
The costs of war and the impact of wartime blockade compounded by the Treaty of Versailles undermined the Germany economy
1922 could not afford reparations for next three years.
Treaty of Versailles, had to pay 132,000 million gold marks. First instalment in 1921
9th January, 1923, French and Belgian troops invaded Ruhr, industrial area.
Since G had weakened army, ordered passive resistance. No collaboration with French Army.
Next 8 months, 132 total killed for resistance.
Loss of production provoked hyperinflation in 1923.
Middle class families hit particularly hard, lost savings.
Result of economic difficulties bitterness and unrest. Less faith in democracy.