Etapas en la producción de petróleo


etapas en la producción petrolera
Mind Map by edil74, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by edil74 over 9 years ago

Resource summary

Etapas en la producción de petróleo
  1. Primaria


    1. desplazamiento por la energía natural existente en el yacimiento
      1. Improve oil recovery: medidas tomadas durante las etapas primaria y secundaria para incrementar el recobro del petroleo
        1. Correspondiente a EOR y otras actividades como caracterización de los yacimientos, etc.
        2. Empuje por agua




          1. Empuje por gas en solución
            1. Expansión de la roca y de los fluidos
              1. Empuje por capa de gas
                1. Drenaje por gravedad
                2. Secundaria
                  1. por inyección de agua o gas
                  2. Terciaria
                    1. uso de gases miscibles, enegía térmica, etc
                      1. Técnicas de recobro mejorado /Enhanced oil recovery
                        1. Gas injection or miscible flooding
                          1. Plasma-Pulse utilizes low energy emissions to create the same effect that many other technologies can produce except without negative ecological impact.
                            1. Injection miscible solvents
                              1. Polymer flooding consists in mixing long chain polymer molecules with the injected water in order to increase the water viscosity
                                1. Microbial injection is part of microbial enhanced oil recovery and is rarely used because of its higher cost and because the developments is not widely accepted
                                  1. Carbon dioxide is particularly effective in reservoirs deeper than 2,000 ft., where CO2 will be in a supercritical state.
                                    1. Hydrocarbon displacement is where a slug of hydrocarbon gas is pushed into the reservoir in order to form a miscible phase at high pressure.
                                    2. Thermal methods
                                      1. are used to heat the crude oil in the formation to reduce its viscosity and/or vaporize part of the oil and thus decrease the mobility ratio. The increased heat reduces the surface tension and increases the permeability of the oil. The heated oil may also vaporize and then condense forming improved oil.
                                        1. Steam flooding (see sketch) is one means of introducing heat to the reservoir by pumping steam into the well with a pattern similar to that of water injection. Eventually the steam condenses to hot water, in the steam zone the oil evaporates and in the hot water zone the oil expands. As a result the oil expands the viscosity drops and the permeability increases. To ensure success the process has to be cyclical. This is the principal enhanced oil recovery program in use today.
                                          1. Fire flood works best when the oil saturation and porosity are high. Combustion generates the heat within the reservoir itself. Continuous injection of air or other gas mixture with high oxygen content will maintain the flame front. As the fire burns, it moves through the reservoir toward production wells. Heat from the fire reduces oil viscosity and helps vaporize reservoir water to steam. The steam, hot water, combustion gas and a bank of distilled solvent all act to drive oil in front of the fire toward production wells
                                      2. Las 3 etapas no deben ser necesariamente aplicadas en orden
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