Physical education

plumlovesoreos
Mind Map by plumlovesoreos, updated more than 1 year ago
plumlovesoreos
Created by plumlovesoreos almost 6 years ago
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GCSE GCSE EDEXCEL PE Mind Map on Physical education, created by plumlovesoreos on 06/30/2014.

Resource summary

Physical education
1 Analysis of performance
1.1 Officials and sport leaders
1.1.1 Sport leaders- highly influential and have the power to motivate the people around them
1.1.1.1 can also help with tactics and strategies in competitions
1.1.2 Referees and umpires
1.1.2.1 Making sure the rules of the game is being followed
1.1.2.1.1 these rules make the sport
1.1.2.1.1.1 Coaches need to know all of these rules, this is so they can improved performance
1.1.2.1.2 to help keep players safe
1.1.3 Sports leaders
1.1.3.1 All sports have leaders who can influence those surrounding them and wanting to improve performances
1.1.3.1.1 These sport leaders need the qualities of:
1.1.3.1.1.1 Enthusiasm
1.1.3.1.1.2 Outstanding ability in the sport they are in
1.1.3.1.1.3 Ability to motivate people surrounding them
1.1.3.1.1.4 Ability to read the game or a sporting situation
1.1.3.2 Captains and Coaches are an example
2 Health and fitness
2.1 Benefits of sport
2.1.1 Regular exercise helps improve our health and fitness
2.1.1.1 Health- state of complete mental, physical and social well-being
2.1.2 Mental benefits
2.1.2.1 confidence improves
2.1.2.2 the relief of stress and tension
2.1.3 Physical benefits
2.1.3.1 losing weight
2.1.3.2 improved posture and body shape
2.1.4 Social benefits
2.1.4.1 making friends
2.1.4.2 meeting new people
2.2 Health-related fitness factors
2.2.1 Cardiovascular fitness
2.2.1.1 ability to exercise the whole body for long periods of time
2.2.2 Muscular strength
2.2.2.1 the amount of force a muscle can expect against resistance
2.2.3 Muscular endurance
2.2.3.1 the ability to use voluntary muscles many times without being tired
2.2.4 Flexibility
2.2.4.1 range of movement at a joint
2.2.5 Body composition
2.2.5.1 percentage of body weight, which is fat, muscle or bone
2.2.6 Speed
2.2.6.1 different rates in which an individual is able to perform a movement
2.3 Skill-related fitness factors
2.3.1 Agility
2.3.1.1 ability to change the position of the body quickly and with control
2.3.2 Balance
2.3.2.1 ability to retain the centre of mass above the base of support
2.3.3 Co-ordination
2.3.3.1 ability to use two or more body parts together
2.3.4 Power
2.3.4.1 ability to use strength at speed
2.3.5 Reaction time
2.3.5.1 time between the presentation of a stimulus and the onset of a movement
2.3.6 Speed
2.3.6.1 different rate at which an individual is able to perform a movement
2.3.7 Methods of training
2.3.7.1 Training can be either aerobic or anaerobic exercise
2.3.7.1.1 Aerobic exercise
2.3.7.1.1.1 steady exercise, that is not too fast ( the heart is able to supply enough oxygen to the muscles )
2.3.7.1.1.2 improves cardiovascular
2.3.7.1.2 Anaerobic exercise
2.3.7.1.2.1 exercise is performed in short,fast burst (Where the heart cannot supply enough oxygen to the muslces)
2.3.7.1.2.1.1 improving the ability of the muscles to work without enough oxygen ( when lactic acid is produced)
2.3.7.2 Types of training
2.3.7.2.1 Circuit training
2.3.7.2.1.1 performing a series of exercises in a special order
2.3.7.2.1.1.1 each of these activities take place at a 'station'
2.3.7.2.1.1.1.1 can improve: speed, agility, co-ordination, balance and musclar endurance
2.3.7.2.2 Continuous training
2.3.7.2.2.1 working for a sustained period of time, but without rest
2.3.7.2.2.1.1 improves cardiovascular fitness
2.3.7.2.3 Cross training
2.3.7.2.3.1 using another sporting activity, to improve fitness
2.3.7.2.3.2 training in a different type of enviroment
2.3.7.2.4 Fartlek training
2.3.7.2.4.1 changing your speed and the terrain which you run over
2.3.7.2.5 interval training
2.3.7.2.5.1 Alternating between periods of hard exercise and rest
2.3.7.2.5.2 improves speed and muscular endurance
2.3.7.2.6 Weight training
2.3.7.2.6.1 using weights to provide resistance to the muscles
2.3.7.2.6.2 Improves muscular strength and muscular endurance
2.3.7.2.7 Effects of training and exercise
2.3.7.2.7.1 After exercise, the body willl always experience immediate and gradual after effects
2.3.7.2.7.2 Effects on our bones, joints and muscles
2.3.7.2.7.2.1 Immediate effects
2.3.7.2.7.2.1.1 muscles contraction
2.3.7.2.7.2.1.2 increased blood flow to our muscles
2.3.7.2.7.2.1.3 rise in muscles temperature
2.3.7.2.7.2.2 Effects of regular training
2.3.7.2.7.2.2.1 increase in bone width and desnity
2.3.7.2.7.2.2.2 muscles, tendons and ligaments get stronger as time passes
2.3.7.2.7.2.2.3 joints become more stable
2.3.7.2.7.2.2.4 increased flexibility at the joints
2.3.7.2.7.2.2.5 muscles get bigger (known as hypertrophy)
2.3.7.2.7.2.2.6 your muscle endurance improves
2.3.7.2.7.2.2.7 Effects on the cardiovascular system
2.3.7.2.7.2.2.7.1 Immediate effects of training
2.3.7.2.7.2.2.7.1.1 increasing the heart rate
2.3.7.2.7.2.2.7.1.2 blood temperature rises
2.3.7.2.7.2.2.7.1.3 blood vessels near the skin, open to allow heat to be lost effectively
2.3.7.2.7.2.2.7.2 Effects of regular training
2.3.7.2.7.2.2.7.2.1 heart muscles increases in size and depth
2.3.7.2.7.2.2.7.2.2 lower heart resting rate
2.3.7.2.7.2.2.7.2.2.1 quicker recovert rate
2.3.7.2.7.2.2.7.2.3 reduces risk of heart disease
2.4 Principles and methods of training
2.4.1 You need planning in order to get the best out of your training
2.4.1.1 best programmes are built on principles of specificity, overload, progression and reversibility
2.4.1.1.1 Needs for things:
2.4.1.1.1.1 Frequency
2.4.1.1.1.1.1 decides how often to train
2.4.1.1.1.2 Intensity
2.4.1.1.1.2.1 decides how hard to train
2.4.1.1.1.3 Time
2.4.1.1.1.3.1 decides how long to train for
2.4.1.1.1.4 Type
2.4.1.1.1.4.1 decides which methods of training to use
2.4.2 A well good training programme will meet individual needs, that are based on: age, gender, fitness level and the sport you are training for
2.4.3 Key principles when planning a programme
2.4.3.1 Specificity
2.4.3.1.1 training must be matches to the needs of the sporting activity, improving fitness in the body parts used in that sport
2.4.3.2 Overload
2.4.3.2.1 fitness can only be improved by training more ( more than you usually do )
2.4.3.3 Progression
2.4.3.3.1 Starting slowly
2.4.3.3.2 Gradually increasing the amount of exercise and keep overloading
2.4.3.4 Reversibility
2.4.3.4.1 any adaptation that will take place as a result of training, will then be reversed once you've stopped training
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