cognitive model of OCD (Salkovskis et al 1999/2000)

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MSc abnormal Mind Map on cognitive model of OCD (Salkovskis et al 1999/2000), created by phoebe.votolato on 05/23/2013.

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Created by phoebe.votolato over 6 years ago
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cognitive model of OCD (Salkovskis et al 1999/2000)
1 1. based on observation that intrusive thoughts, doubts or images are almost universal in gen pop. Content indistinguishable from those in OCD (RACHMAN & SILVA, 1978)
1.1 The difference btwn normal vs. pathology = the meaning attached to occurrence or content of intrusions AND the response
2 2. Dysfunctional beliefs that characterize OCD

Annotations:

  • Learned over long periods of time from childhood onwards, and may be formed as a result of extreme events or circumstances.  These beliefs contribute significantly to the symptoms of OCD, making them a promising target for CBT
2.1 Thought-Action Fusion (Shafran & Rachman, 2004)

Annotations:

  • Having a thought about an actiion is like performing it. 
2.2 Overinflated sense of responsibility

Annotations:

  • The belief that one has power that is pivotal to bring about or prevent negative outcomes. The outcomes may be physical ones or moral (Salkovskis et al 1995)
2.2.1 Responsibility is not reduced by other factors e.g. something being improbable
2.2.2 Failing to prevent harm to self/others is same as having caused the harm
2.3 not trying to neutralize/suppress thought = wanting the harm to happen
2.4 One should always try to exercise control over one's thoughts (Salkovskis & McGuire, 2003)
3 3. Non-specific cognitive biases (attention & reasoning)

Annotations:

  • not necessarily specific to OCD, but in combo with fusion and inflated responsibility, lead to anx and compulsive behaviours.  
3.1 Excessive narrowing of focus on monitoring for potential threats
3.1.1 less attention to real events thus -> loss of confidence in their memory ->further checking behaviour
3.2 Intrusive thoughts accompanied by excessive attentional bias on monitoring them
3.2.1 leads to heightened cognitive self-consciousness & increased detection of unwanted thoughts & worries about not performing compulsions/safety behaviours
3.3 overestimation of liklihood harm will occur
3.4 believe more vulnerable to danger
3.5 Intolerance of uncertainty, ambiguity or change
3.6 need for control
4 EMOTION

Annotations:

  • often find it difficult to articulate their dominant emotion because have a wide range
4.1 ANXIETY
4.2 guilt/shame
4.3 Depression/comorbid mood disorders common
4.4 disgust
4.5 anger, frustration, irritability
5 4. SUBSEQUENT BEHAVIOURS
5.1 THOUGHT SUPPRESSION

Annotations:

  • NB: The 'REBOUND' EFFECT (Clark, Ball & Pape, 1991): -suppression actually causes thought to occur more often once period of suppression/inhibition is over. -may account for why OCDs have more intrusions than gen pop (Wenzlaff & Wegner, 2000)
5.2 Safety-seeking = action in feared situation to prevent catastrophe & reduce harm (Salkovskis 1985). Includes compulsions and neutralising behaviours (compulsion = the psychological urge, neutralising action = the behaviour in response to the urge
5.2.1 NEUTRALIZING ACTIONS (mental action to control a thought or change it's meaning to prevent neg consequences)
5.2.2 Compulsions
5.3 PERSEVERATION

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