1.1 Coding: the format in
which the information
is stored in the memory
1.1.1 Research: Alan Baddeley gave different lists of words to four groups of
ppts. Semantically similar,semantically dissimilar,acoustically similar
and acoustically dissimilar. They were asked to recall the words in the
correct order. When carrying out the task immediately (STM) ppts did
worse with the acoustically similar words whereas with LTM ppts did
worse with semantically similar words. This suggests info is coded
semantically in LTM
1.2 Capacity: the amount of
information that can be
held in the memory store
1.2.1 Research: Joseph Jacobs, Digit span. Ppts
given 4 digits and asked to recall them in
correct order aloud. If correct they are asked
to recall 5 digits and so on until they can no
longer recall correctly. The mean span was
9.3 items and 7.3 letters.
1.2.2 Research: George Miller made observations
of everyday practice and found things come
in 7. This suggests span is about 7 items +-2.
But also people can recall 5 words as well as
letters by chunking.
1.3 Duration: the length of
time information can be
held in the memory
1.3.1 STM Research: Peterson and Peterson tested 24 undergraduate
students. 8 trials, each trial given a trigram to learn and a 3
digit number. Had to count back from the 3 digit number
and then told to recall the trigram at different points. Each
trial was a different stop time. Found duration in STM is
very small unless rehearsed.
1.3.2 LTM research: Bahrick studied 392 ppts from Ohio. Age
range was 17-74. High school yearbooks used to
measure recall. 1)photo recognition task, 2)free recall
task. Ppts tested within 15 yrs of graduation did well
on photo recognition whereas at 48 years recall
declined 20%. The free recall was worse. However, both
showed duration can last a very long time.
2 Multi-store model
2.1 Definition: A model to show how memory works in terms of three stores.
2.1.1 Sensory register
188.8.131.52 Stimulus from environment
enters the sensory register.
Inside are many stores, the
two main ones include the
iconic(visually coded) and the
The duration is less than a
second but it has high
184.108.40.206 Limited capacity store, on average
between 5-9 items but closer to 5 than 9.
Info is coded acoustically and lasts about
30 seconds unless rehearsed.
220.127.116.11 Potentially permanent store for info that
has been rehearsed for prolonged period.
Capacity is unlimited and lasts many years
(as seen in Bahricks study) Tend to be coded
3 Types of LTM
3.1.1 Similar to a diary it is a memory store
for personal events. It includes
memories of when events occurred any
many of the things involved within it. eg. when first pet died
3.2.1 Memory store for knowledge of the world.
Facts and what words and concepts mean.
Usually need to be recalled with effort and
consciously. eg. Paris is capital city of
3.3.1 Memory for actions, or skills. Can
be recalled without conscious
effort. eg. riding a bike
4 The working memory model
4.1 Definition: A representation of STM. Suggests that STM is
a dynamic processor of different types of info using
sub-units coordinated by central decision making
4.1.1 Central executive
18.104.22.168 Makes decisions and allocates slave systems tasks. Has very
4.1.2 Phonological loop
22.214.171.124 Deals with auditory info(coded
acoustically). Divided into two:
Phonological store-stores the words you
hear, and the articulatory process-allows
4.1.3 Visio-spatial sketchpad
126.96.36.199 Stores visual and spatial information with a limited
capacity. Divided into two areas: visual cache-stores visual
data and inner scribe-records arrangement of objects in
4.1.4 Episodic Buffer
188.8.131.52 Added to the model. Temporary store for
information, storage component of central
executive and has limited capacity of four
5 Explanations for forgetting
5.1.1 Two pieces of information conflict with
each other. Two types: Proactive
interference- where an older memory
interferes with a newer one, or retroactive
interference- where a newer memory
interferes with an older one.
184.108.40.206 Research: Effects of similarity. Mcgeoch and Mcdonald studied
retroactive interference by changing extent of similarity between
materials. Ppts learned a list of words until they could 100%
recall them. They then learned a new list. 6 groups learned
different types of lists. when ppts recalled original list of words
their performance depended on second list. Most similar
material produced worst recall. Interference is therefore
strongest when material is similar.
5.2 Retrieval failure
5.2.1 Occurs when we don't have the necessary cues to access the memory. Encoding specificity
principle (ESP)- states that the cue has to be present at encoding and retrieval in order to help
recall. If cues available at encoding and retrieval are different forgetting will take place.
220.127.116.11 Context dependent forgetting- Godden and
Baddely research into sea divers. Ppts
learned a list of words either underwater or
on land. Then asked to recall them either
underwater or on land. Creating four
conditions learn on land recall on land,
learn on land recall in water,learn in water
recall on land,learn in water recall in water.
Accurate recall was 40% lower in
18.104.22.168 State-dependent forgetting- Carter and
Cassaday gave anti-histamine drugs which
contained a mild sedative to ppts, making
them drowsy. Creates an internal physiological
state. Given list of words which they had to
recall. Creating four conditions: learn on
drug-recall on drug, learn on drug-recall not on
drug, learn not on drug-recall not on drug,
learn not on drug-recall on drug. More
forgetting when physiological state was
6 Eye witness testimony
6.1 Misleading information
6.1.1 Leading questions: Loftus and Palmer got ppts
to watch film clips of car accidents and then
gave them questions about the accident. The
critical question ppts asked how fast the cars
were travelling when they 'hit' 'smashed'
'collided' 'bumped' 'contacted' eachother.
Mean speed calculated for each group. Verb
contacted 31.8mph whereas smashed
6.1.2 Post-event discussion- when witnesses to a
crime discuss it with each other their
testimonies may become contaminated.
Research: Gabbert studied ppts in pairs. Each
watched a video of the same crime but from
different angles, some could see things that
others could not. Both then discussed what they
had seen before completing test of recall. 71%
of ppts mistakenly recalled aspects of the event
they did not see in the video but had picked up
in discussion. Control group had 0%.
6.2.1 Has a negative effect on recall. Research: Johnson and Scott led ppts to
believe they were taking part in a lab study. Whilst seated in waiting room
ppts heard loud argument next door, in low-anxiety condition a man
walked through waiting area with a pen and grease on his hands. In the
high anxiety condition a man walked through carrying a paper knife
covered in blood. Ppts later picked out the man from a set of 50 photos.
49% of ppts in the low anxiety condition able to identify, ONLY 33% in
22.214.171.124 Tunnel theory- weapon focus effect
6.2.2 Has a positive effect on recall. Fight or flight
response increases our awareness. Research:
Yuille and Cutshall conducted study of real life
shooting in Vancouver gun shop. 13/21 witnesses
agreed to take part in the study. Interviews held
4-5 months after compared to original
interviews. Also asked to rate level of stress and
if they have had any emotional problems since
the event. Those who reported higher levels of
stress were the most accurate.
126.96.36.199 Inverted U theory. Yerkes Dodson law
6.3 Cognitive interview
6.3.1 Four main techniques uses: report
context(return to original scene in
their mind) reverse order(prevent
people recalling their expectations)
change perspective(from another
persons perspective to prevent
188.8.131.52 Enhanced cognitive
social dynamics of the