1.1 Involves creation of new neural pathways OR
the strengthening of existing neural pathways.
1.1.1 Neural pathway - bundle of
myelin-covered neurons (white
matter) that provide a
connection between one part
of the nervous system and
1.2 Involves synaptogenesis
1.2.1 Synaptogenesis -process of moulding
or forming new
synapses are formed
2.1 Made up of axon terminal
synaptic gap and dendrite
2.2 During learning the presynaptic
neuron releases glutamate into
the synaptic gap.
Glutamate the main excitatory neurotransmitter involved in learning
The repeated release of glutamate releases dopamine and leads to an increase in dendritic spines - growth from the dendrites toward the axon terminals.
2.3 When new learning occurs the neurons
form new connections with each other.
2.3.1 'Sprouts' - term for the new growth
that occurs from the axon terminals
It is okay to say that new 'sprouts' rather than fifgree appendages occur when something is learned.
2.3.2 New growth also occurs between
dendrites towards the axon terminals. This
makes the dendrites more sensitive to
future firing from neighbouring neurons.
3 Strengthening of
3.1 Enables the newly learnt information to be transferred
from one neuron to the next.
3.2 The more the neural pathway is activated during learning the
more it is strengthened and the less likely learning will be
3.3 If a particular neural pathways are not
activated the learning may be forgotten;
synapses become weakened through
4 Study of neurobiological basis of
learning has just begun!
4.1 The more we understand the more we can apply our
understanding to treat phobias, learning
disabilities, psychological orders etc.