Memory Mindmap

seher.islay
Mind Map by , created over 6 years ago

Psychology Mind Map on Memory Mindmap, created by seher.islay on 05/30/2013.

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seher.islay
Created by seher.islay over 6 years ago
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Memory Mindmap
1 Theories of Forgetting
1.1 Retrieval Failure Theory (Cue Dependent Forgetting)
1.1.1 the correct cues to retrieve information are not used or are not available
1.1.2 The tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon (TOT)
1.1.2.1 the feeling that something we know is just not available to be recalled from memory. An indication that some forgetting is due to retrieval failure
1.1.3 Retrieval cues
1.1.3.1 Encoding specificity principle
1.1.3.1.1 associations are formed at the time of forming new memories and these will be the most effective retrieval cues
1.1.3.2 mental reminders or prompts that we create to assist our recollection later on
1.1.4 inability to retrieve material due to an absence of the right cues or a failure to use them
1.1.4.1 memory is present but no accessible
1.2 Interference Theory (process leads to forgetting)
1.2.1 one memory is interfered with by another memory
1.2.2 Limitation of Interference Theory
1.2.2.1 Limitations
1.2.2.1.1 replicated in laboratory studies, it might not operate to the same degree in real life
1.2.3 Retroactive interference
1.2.3.1 when newly acquired material inhibits our ability to retrieve previously learned material
1.2.4 Proactive interference
1.2.4.1 when previously learnt material inhibits our ability to encode and store new material
1.3 Motivated Forgetting (psychological theory: Freud)
1.3.1 there is an underlying motivation not to remember (especially for episodic memories)
1.3.2 Suppression (deliberate)
1.3.2.1 (motivated forgetting) conscious refusal to allow memories to occur
1.3.3 Repression (involuntary)
1.3.3.1 a psychological process which automatically and unconsciously prevents emotionally distressing memories from coming into our conscious awareness
1.3.4 memory is present but no accessible
1.4 Decay Theory (biological theory)
1.4.1 the memory has faded, or decayed, through lack of use
1.4.2 memory trace fades if not revisited and renewed
2 Multi-store Model of Memory (Atkinson-Shiffrin's) (Information processing model)
2.1 Sensory Memory
2.1.1 a very brief memoy store. Information enters this register and is transferred to STM
2.1.2 Iconic Memory
2.1.2.1 visual sensory memory
2.1.2.2 Duration
2.1.2.2.1 0.3 seconds
2.1.2.3 Capacity
2.1.2.3.1 Unlimited
2.1.2.4 Form of encoding
2.1.2.4.1 Visual
2.1.2.5 Forgetting
2.1.2.5.1 Fades rapidly
2.1.2.6 Example of Iconic Memory
2.1.2.6.1 Waving a sparkler in the dark and briefly experiencing an afterimage
2.1.3 Echoic Memory
2.1.3.1 auditory (sound) sensory memory
2.1.3.2 Duration
2.1.3.2.1 3-4 seconds
2.1.3.3 Capacity
2.1.3.3.1 Unlimited
2.1.3.4 Forms of encoding
2.1.3.4.1 Acoustic
2.1.3.5 Forgetting
2.1.3.5.1 Fades
2.1.3.6 Example of Echoic Memory
2.1.3.6.1 Retaining the sounds of words for long enough to understand the whole word or phrase that has been spoken
2.2 Short-term Memory
2.2.1 a limited store of actively conscious memory. Information is then transfers to LTM
2.2.2 Capacity
2.2.2.1 5-9 pieces of information (7+-2)
2.2.3 Duration
2.2.3.1 12-13 seconds
2.2.4 Function
2.2.4.1 Holds information in awareness for a short period of time- long enough to use for mental tasks
2.2.5 Encoding
2.2.5.1 Mostly acoustic. Attention and rehearsal will help store information in LTM
2.2.6 Forgetting
2.2.6.1 Displacement and interference. Possibility of decay.
2.2.7 Example
2.2.7.1 Remembering an address long enough to look it up in a street directory
2.2.8 Maintenance Rehearsal
2.2.8.1 a strategy for keeping information in short-term memory or for moving it into long-term memory by simply repeating information over and over, but not trying to form meaningful connections between the new information and other information which is already in memory
2.2.8.1.1 Methods of Maintenance Rehearsal
2.2.8.1.1.1 Verbal (using words)
2.2.8.1.1.1.1 Example
2.2.8.1.1.1.1.1 - vocal (saying words out loud) , sub-vocal (thinking words silently to oneself)
2.2.8.1.1.2 Non-verbal (using visual or spatial information)
2.2.8.1.1.2.1 Example
2.2.8.1.1.2.1.1 Visualising (keep a pictorial image in one's mind, muscular (imagining how it feels to perform an action)
2.2.9 Chunking
2.2.9.1 grouping together of items that can be remembered as a single group, for example remembering phone numbers in groups of digits; usually related to increasing capacity of short-term memory
2.3 Long-term Memory
2.3.1 a store of information that is virtually limitless in capacity. It needs retrieval to bring back into conscious awareness
2.3.2 stored in semantic networks
2.3.3 Duration
2.3.3.1 LTM lasts longer than sensory memory and STM , but it is hard to determine its exact duration
2.3.4 Capacity
2.3.4.1 Unlimited
2.3.5 Encoding
2.3.5.1 Elaborative rehearsal
2.3.5.1.1 giving meaning to information and linking it to information already in long-term memory. This is the process of encoding
2.3.5.1.2 Salience
2.3.5.1.2.1 personal relevance- a way to improve encoding, storage and retrieval of material
2.3.5.1.3 Mnemonic devices
2.3.5.1.3.1 a form of elaborate rehearsal where the information is connected to material already in your long-term memory. This can include visualisation, rhythm and rhyme
3 Memory
3.1 the mental capacity for retaining an image, concept or knowledge when the stimuli which created it no longer exist in consciousness. Memory may also refer to the storage system which retains such images
3.2 Encoding
3.2.1 the process of putting information into a form which will allow it to fit in with your personal storage system
3.3 Storage
3.3.1 maintaining encoded information in a memory store
3.4 Retrieval
3.4.1 the process of getting information back from long-term memory to be used in working memory

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