Psychology as a Science

sally.keegan
Mind Map by sally.keegan, updated more than 1 year ago
sally.keegan
Created by sally.keegan about 7 years ago
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A-Levels Psychology Mind Map on Psychology as a Science, created by sally.keegan on 06/03/2013.
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Psychology as a Science
1 Theories provide understanding an explanations by organising facts
2 Theories provide a basis for research, generating predictions and hypotheses
3 Process of deriving new hypotheses from theory is - Hypoithetico-deductive method
4 Popper believed a theory should be falsifiable and subjected to attempts of refutation
5 Paradigm
5.1 A set of assumptions about a subject
5.1.1 scientific study of human and animal behaviour and mental processes
5.1.1.1 provides greater knowledge and understanding at a theoretical level
5.1.2 Evidence and fact gathered through scientific procedures are objective
5.1.2.1 these can be used to support a theory of hypothetical statement
5.1.3 applications of scientific approach to the study of people brings benefits to people's lives
5.1.3.1 helps them adjust better to change and cope with trama in their lives
5.1.4 scientific procedures used by one psychologist can be replicated by another psychologist
5.1.4.1 Peer Review
5.1.5 The study of human beings is inherently interesting and fascinating in its own right
5.1.5.1 understanding about ourselves & the society
5.2 Kuhn- argues a subject cannot be a science unless it has a paradigm
5.3 Psychology is a pre science as there are too many theoretical approaches
5.4 Palermo - psychology has gone beyond being a science
6 Theory and hypothesis testing
7 Empirical Methods
7.1 If it is not subject to empirical methods it cannot claim to be scientific
7.2 Direct experience, experimental, factual, verifiable, objective
7.3 Popper (1972) observation is always pre structured
8 Replication
8.1 When following the same procedure, findings should be repeated
8.2 Harder in psychology than other sciences because it is subject to human behaviours
8.3 If replicated validity & generalisability is increased and practical application is improved
9 Generalisation
9.1 The ability of the researcher to make a justified extention of their conclusions, applying them to members of the target population and other situations
9.2 Must be a representative sample
9.3 Should have ecological ability
9.4 Must be able to be replicated
10 Overt Behaviour
10.1 behaviour that is open and detectable
10.2 Can be internal but must be observed from responses
11 Subjective private experience
11.1 Internal and unique to each person
11.2 Cannot be accessed or replicated
11.3 William James
11.3.1 "stream of conciousness"
11.3.1.1 an internal monologue that id always present, unique, private and accessible only by the individual
12 Role of Peer Review
12.1 Theories and research findings must be communicated through..
12.1.1 Journals and conferences to other scientists in order to...
12.1.1.1 Validate- quality of research and relevance of ideas
12.1.1.2 Evaluate-research proposals for financial support with future work
13 Strengths
13.1 Respectively due to a scientific status
13.2 Objective and provides reliable findings that can be generalised
13.2.1 to large groups of people- this also increases validity
13.3 Theories provide general laws of behaviour
13.3.1 allow psychology to progress as a science
13.4 Resulted in applications which can improve people's lives and help solve problems
14 Weaknesses
14.1 Demand characteristics- as human behaviour is the subject matter
14.2 Ethical restrictions may constrain psychological research
14.3 Strives for objectivitiy and control but can cause artificial environment and lack of generalisability
14.3.1 lacks ecological validity
14.3.1.1 has both nomothetic and idiographic features
14.3.1.1.1 uses idiographic features to make nomothetic assumptions
14.4 Cannot control all variables so completely accurate predictions are impossible
14.5 Deterministic and reductionist
14.6 Much is unobservable: cannot be measured
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