1.3 - GM crops

RoryFlynn2
Mind Map by RoryFlynn2, updated more than 1 year ago
RoryFlynn2
Created by RoryFlynn2 almost 7 years ago
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A-level Geography G3 (Food) Mind Map on 1.3 - GM crops, created by RoryFlynn2 on 06/04/2013.
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1.3 - GM crops
1 The Green Revolution: India
1.1 Resulted in record grain output of 131 million tonnes in 1978-79
1.1.1 Yield per unit of farmland improved by more than 30%
1.2 The Punjab
1.2.1 Grows 20% of India's wheat
1.2.2 GR = 200% increase productivity
1.2.3 '65 - feeds 12 on 2.5 acres
1.2.3.1 '07 - feeds 30 one same land
1.2.3.1.1 Nearly 3x increase
1.2.4 Big land owners benefit mostly
1.2.5 Intensive farming = soil degradation + water shortages
1.2.5.1 1 million don't have access to safe water
1.2.5.2 Water shortages can cause food shortages
1.2.5.2.1 Fear of famine - leading to food insecurity
1.2.6 Countries importing food from a nation lacking water - taking virtual water - water footprint
1.2.7 Crude oil is also becoming increasingly important for food production - focus of crops is changing
1.2.7.1 E.g. 1 tomato uses up approx 1/3 of a litre of oil in a greenhouse
2 Advantages of GM crops
2.1 More food available - bigger harvests than 20 yrs ago
2.2 Bigger harvests = more income + occasionally cheaper food
2.3 Populous countries like India, Indonesia and Thailand
2.3.1 Self sufficient
2.3.2 No longer dependant on US + EU
2.4 Environmental impact of rural people lessened by urban migration
2.5 India + Thailand now export grain
2.5.1 Useful foreign export
2.6 Increased employment all year round
3 Disadvantages of GM crops
3.1 Bigger granaries storing more grain isn't enough
3.1.1 Distribution is still uneven
3.2 Farmers who can't afford GM - Crops lose value
3.2.1 Rich/Poor divide widened
3.3 Increased dependency on imported GM seeds, pesticides, machinery
3.4 New farming methods = increased water borne diseases, devpt of 'super-pests' and desertification
3.4.1 Eutrophication
3.4.2 Biodiversity lost
3.5 Imports of seeds, petrochemical fertilisers and fuel for machinery all costs foreign exchange
3.5.1 Control given to multinationals
3.6 Profits invested into machinery - reduced employment
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