1 The term behaviourism refers to the school of psychology founded by John B. Watson based on the belief that behaviours can be
measured, trained and changed. Behaviourism, also known as behavioural psychology, is a theory of learning based upon the idea
that al behaviours are acquired through conditioning. Conditioning occurs through interaction with the environmental. Behaviourists
believe that our responses to environmental stimuli shapes our behaviour. According to behaviourism, behaviour can be studied in a
systematic and observable manner with no consideration of internal mental states. This school of thought suggests that only
observable behaviours should be studied, since internal states such as cognitions, emotions and moods are too subjective.
1.1 There are two major types of conditioning:
1.1.1 Classical conditioning is a
techniques used in
behavioural training in
which a naturally occurring
stimulus is paired with a
1.1.2 Operant conditioning is
a method of learning
that occurs through
2.1 He became
on of the
2.2 Skinner invented the "Skinner Box", in
which a rat learns to obtain food by
pressing a lever.
2.3 Skinner is famous for his
research on operant conditioning
and negative reinforcement.
2.4 Skinner developed a device called the "cumulative
recorder", which showed rates of responsing as a
sloped line. using this device, he found that
behaviour did not depend on the preceding stimulus
as Watson and Pavlov maintained. Instead, Skinner
found that behaviours werew dependent upon what
happens after the response. Skinner called this
3 Ivan Pavlov
3.1 Pavlov was best known for
Research on physiology and
digestion and he won the 1904
Nobel Prize in Physiology
3.2 He was a Behaviourist.
3.3 Pavlov studied reflexes, automatic
behaviour that is caused by a stimulus for
3.3.1 Some reflexes, such as blinking
your eyes when a puff of air coms
in it, or the sucking of a baby when
they put something in their mouth.
22.214.171.124 This Automatic behaviour can be manipulated.