Behaviourism

jasmin.uppal
Mind Map by , created over 6 years ago

Australian Capital Territory - Australian Capital Territory Year 12 Certificate Psychology Mind Map on Behaviourism, created by jasmin.uppal on 06/10/2013.

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jasmin.uppal
Created by jasmin.uppal over 6 years ago
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Behaviourism
1 The term behaviourism refers to the school of psychology founded by John B. Watson based on the belief that behaviours can be measured, trained and changed. Behaviourism, also known as behavioural psychology, is a theory of learning based upon the idea that al behaviours are acquired through conditioning. Conditioning occurs through interaction with the environmental. Behaviourists believe that our responses to environmental stimuli shapes our behaviour. According to behaviourism, behaviour can be studied in a systematic and observable manner with no consideration of internal mental states. This school of thought suggests that only observable behaviours should be studied, since internal states such as cognitions, emotions and moods are too subjective.
1.1 There are two major types of conditioning:
1.1.1 Classical conditioning is a techniques used in behavioural training in which a naturally occurring stimulus is paired with a response.
1.1.2 Operant conditioning is a method of learning that occurs through rewards and punishments for behaviour.
2 B.F.Skinner
2.1 He became on of the leaders of behaviorism
2.2 Skinner invented the "Skinner Box", in which a rat learns to obtain food by pressing a lever.
2.3 Skinner is famous for his research on operant conditioning and negative reinforcement.
2.4 Skinner developed a device called the "cumulative recorder", which showed rates of responsing as a sloped line. using this device, he found that behaviour did not depend on the preceding stimulus as Watson and Pavlov maintained. Instead, Skinner found that behaviours werew dependent upon what happens after the response. Skinner called this operant behaviour.
3 Ivan Pavlov
3.1 Pavlov was best known for Classical Conditioning, Research on physiology and digestion and he won the 1904 Nobel Prize in Physiology
3.2 He was a Behaviourist.
3.3 Pavlov studied reflexes, automatic behaviour that is caused by a stimulus for the environment.
3.3.1 Some reflexes, such as blinking your eyes when a puff of air coms in it, or the sucking of a baby when they put something in their mouth.
3.3.1.1 This Automatic behaviour can be manipulated.
3.3.1.1.1 This is called conditioning.

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