WESTERN EXPANSION

Fadila  Farag
Mind Map by Fadila Farag, updated more than 1 year ago
Fadila  Farag
Created by Fadila Farag over 5 years ago
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International Baccalaureate U.S. History in a Global Context 10 Mind Map on WESTERN EXPANSION, created by Fadila Farag on 09/14/2014.

Resource summary

WESTERN EXPANSION
1 TRIBES
1.1 hunted buffalos, planted crops, settled in small villages, and gathered wild foods believing powerful spirits controlled the world's natural events
1.2 lived in small extended families and spoke same language
1.3 those who showed sensitivity to spirits became medicine men and women
1.4 leaders ruled by counsel rather than force
1.5 Native Americans believe that land can't be owned which led them to being coerced into forfeiting it for migrants to use for mining and to start businesses
1.6 Native American tribes settled in the Great Plains (grassland west-central portion of U.S.)
2 MAJOR EVENTS
2.1 Massacre at Sand Creek (1864) - one of the most tragic events caused by the U.S. Commander's order to have no peace until Indians suffer more leading to the killing 150 inhabitants of Sand Creek.
2.2 Death on the Bozeman Trail (1866) - Sioux appealed to the government to end white settlements provoking several attacks.
2.3 Red River War (1868) - 6 years of raiding between the tribes before this war started and reservations were made before a Union Army veteran ordered the destroying of villages, hanging of warriors, and bringing back of women and children.
2.4 Custer's Last Stand (1876) - sundance based on the visions with Native Americans on leading to Cluster and his men of the Seventh Cavalry to be killed within the first hour and the Sioux extensively beaten
2.5 The Ghost Dance (1890) - ritual promised to restore Native American lifestyle which led to the killing of Sitting Bull and Chief Big Foot taking control over Sioux
2.6 Battle of Wounded Knee (1890) - Seventh Cavalry rounded up 350 starving freezing people, took their weapons, and slaughtered them leaving their corpses to freeze
3 IMPORTANT PEOPLE
3.1 Sitting Bull (Tatanka Iyotanka) - leader of the Hunkpapa Sioux Tribe who disagreed with the Treaty of Fort Laramie. He led with purpose and stood up for Native Americans rights which led to him being killed by the American police during the Ghost Dance in December 1890.
3.2 George A. Custer - colonel that reported that the Black Hills had gold starting the Gold Rush (1874) which led to another appeal by the Sioux as they knew they would have no advantage from this discovery due to empowered whites
4 ELEMENTS OF FARMING
4.1 Destruction of the Buffalo - amount of buffalos decreased as they were shot as a "sport"
4.2 Longhorns - sturdy-short tempered accustomed to the dry grasslands of Southern Spain and raised for their meat as a source of food
4.3 Demand for Beef - beef was transported from Sedalia, TX to Chicago facing many obstacles like thunderstorms, angry farmers trampled crops blocking cattle, herds sold at low prices, and herds dying
4.4 Chisholm Trail - major route from San Antonio to Oklahoma to Kansas that was used to transported cattlepens.
4.5 Working of the Plains - Workers were mainly Anglo-Americans, but also 25% African American, and ±12% Mexican. Work day consisted of 10-14 hours on ranches or 14+ on trails.
4.6 Roundup consisted of a large corral followed by claiming and branding of cattle, and then choosing crew for long drive.
4.6.1 The Long Drive - overland transport lasted 3 months in which each cowboy was in charge of 250-300 cattle heads putting themselves at risk of death daily from lightening or stampedes that can be easily triggered (thunder or even sneeze). Also, trail boss supervises and earns $100++ per month.
4.7 Bonanza Farm - new type of farm that was an enormous single-crop operation spread over 15,000-50,000 acres, that ended up suffering from droughts and became bankrupt.
4.8 End of Open Range - overgrazing of land, bad weather, and the invention of barbed wire led to it being cheaper to have smaller herds within fenced farms
5 MOVING
5.1 Manifest Destiny - belief that Americans are destined to move to the West because light, progress, civilisation, and technology were coming to the West
5.2 Exoduster - thousands of African Americans who moved from post-Reconstruction South to Kansas
6 TREATIES/ACTS
6.1 Treaty of Fort Laramie (1868) - stated all Sioux must live on a 'small reservation' along the Missouri River
6.2 The Dawes Act (1887) - aimed to "Americanize" Native Americans by giving 160 acres of land to families and 80 acres of land to unmarried adults, the remainder to settlers, and the monetary outcome to Native Americans for farming. By 1932, the whites took 2/3 of the land and left no money.
6.3 Homestead Act (1862) - passed by Congress offering 160 acres of land to any citizen to encourage settlers to come to the West
6.4 Morrill Act (1862 +1890) - government supported farmers by financing agricultural education
7 DESTROYING NATIVE AMERICAN CULTURE
7.1 Forced to Deal With - No say in personal affairs, unproductive land, pressure from whites seeking land, ignorance of their history, weakening their traditional lifestyle, and gathering of opposing tribes.
7.2 Ways the Government Established Superiority - Reconstruction of the Buffalo, taking over their territory, no say in personal affairs, moving them to 'small reservations', ignoring history and weakening culture, government providing bad food, and coercing them to forfeit their home land.
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