Alice Price
Mind Map by Alice Price, updated more than 1 year ago
Alice Price
Created by Alice Price over 3 years ago


Year 9 Biology Mind Map on Homeostasis, created by Alice Price on 03/22/2018.

Resource summary

  1. Nervous System
    1. Central Nervous System (CNS)
      1. Brain
        1. Parts of the brain
          1. Hypothalamus
            1. Helps regulate body temperature
              1. Helps the body realise hunger and thirst
                1. Plays a role in emotions
                  1. Releases and controls many hormones that the body needs to function
                  2. Pituitary gland
                    1. Regulates and releases important hormones to our body
                      1. Plays a big part in the body's overall wellbeing
                      2. Brain stem
                        1. Breathing
                          1. Heart rate
                            1. Blood pressure
                              1. Swallowing
                                1. PLays a role in alertness and sensation
                                2. Cerebrum
                                  1. Divided into two hemishperes
                                    1. Largest part of the brain
                                      1. Controls all conscience activities
                                      2. Cerebellum
                                        1. Responsibles for movement, balance and coordination
                                          1. Allows us to stand upright, keep our balance and move around
                                          2. Frontal Lobe
                                            1. Planning and organising
                                              1. Problem solving and decision making
                                                1. Memory and attention
                                                  1. Controlling behaviour, emtions and impulses
                                                    1. Left frontal lobe plays a large role in speech and language
                                                    2. Temporal Lobe
                                                      1. Recognizing and processing sound
                                                        1. Understanding and producing speech
                                                          1. Various aspects of memory
                                                          2. Occipital Lobe
                                                            1. Receives and processes visual information
                                                              1. Contains areas that help in perceiving shapes and colours
                                                              2. Parietal Lobe
                                                                1. Intergrate sensory information from various parts of the body and contains primary sensory cortex, which controls sensation (hot, touch, cold, pain)
                                                                  1. Tells us which way is up and helps keeping us from bumping into things when we walk
                                                              3. Spinal cord
                                                              4. Peripheral Nervous System
                                                                1. Somatic Nervous System
                                                                  1. Controls voluntary muscle movements
                                                                    1. e.g. waving, chewing, swallowing, movement
                                                                      1. Coordinates movements of the body
                                                                      2. Deals with external stimulus
                                                                        1. Collects information from sensory organs
                                                                        2. Autonomic Nervous System
                                                                          1. Sympathetic Nervous System
                                                                            1. Fight or flight
                                                                              1. Speeds up body functions and makes them work more efficiently - its in control when you are active
                                                                              2. Parasympathetic Nervous System
                                                                                1. Rest and digest
                                                                                  1. Slows down body functions - is in control when you're resting
                                                                                  2. Controls involuntary action which maintain homeostasis e.g. digestion, heartbeat
                                                                                  3. Makes up all nerves outside the CNS
                                                                                    1. Carries information to and from CNS to the rest of the body
                                                                                    2. Neurons
                                                                                      1. Different types of neurons
                                                                                        1. Motor Neurons
                                                                                          1. Carries messages to the effector (glands and muscles) which creates the response
                                                                                          2. Sensory Neurons
                                                                                            1. Carries messages from the sense organs to the brain and spinal cord.
                                                                                            2. Inter/ connector neurons
                                                                                              1. Makes connections in nerve pathways
                                                                                            3. Parts of a neuron
                                                                                              1. Dendrites
                                                                                                1. Receives information from other cells
                                                                                                2. Cell body
                                                                                                  1. Contains nucleus, vacuole, mitochondria etc.
                                                                                                  2. Axon
                                                                                                    1. Transfers the electrical messages
                                                                                                    2. Myelin Sheath
                                                                                                      1. Insulates the electrical signal in the axon and protects the nerve cells in the axon - it is made of fat and increases the speed of the nerve impulse
                                                                                                      2. Axon terminal
                                                                                                        1. Passes the message/ signal onto the synaptic cleft
                                                                                                        2. Synaptic cleft
                                                                                                          1. Neurotransmitters transmit the electrical signal across the gap
                                                                                                        3. Neurons have a fast electrical signal called a "nerve impulse"
                                                                                                      3. Endocrine System
                                                                                                        1. Bloodstream
                                                                                                          1. Produces hormones in endocrine glands
                                                                                                            1. Hormones bind to specific receptors on cells
                                                                                                              1. Those cells are called target cells
                                                                                                          2. Immunity
                                                                                                            1. Pathogens
                                                                                                              1. Types of pathogens
                                                                                                                1. Bacteria
                                                                                                                  1. Fungi
                                                                                                                    1. Viruses
                                                                                                                      1. Protozoa
                                                                                                                        1. Worms/ parasites
                                                                                                                        2. Cause sickness - are infectious
                                                                                                                          1. Transmission
                                                                                                                            1. Direct contact
                                                                                                                              1. e.g. Coughing/ sneezing/touching someone when you are sick
                                                                                                                              2. Indirect contact
                                                                                                                                1. e.g. Sick person touching a door handle and then someone else touching the handle
                                                                                                                                2. Contamination
                                                                                                                                  1. Food poisoning
                                                                                                                                    1. Contaminated water
                                                                                                                                3. Immunisations
                                                                                                                                  1. People get injections that hold deformed or dead pathogens
                                                                                                                                    1. The immune response to pathogens is faster after immunisations
                                                                                                                                    2. The three lines of defense
                                                                                                                                      1. Third line (specific)
                                                                                                                                        1. Specific
                                                                                                                                          1. Lymphadic system
                                                                                                                                            1. Lymphocytes (T and B cells)
                                                                                                                                              1. Located in lymph nodes
                                                                                                                                              2. T and B cells are activated by an antigen
                                                                                                                                                1. T cells kill the infection
                                                                                                                                                  1. B cells release antibodies
                                                                                                                                                    1. The T and B cells clone themselves to help kill the infection - thus the lymph nodes becoming swollen
                                                                                                                                                      1. Antibodies are released
                                                                                                                                                        1. The antibodies stick to the antigens and clump bacteria together for the macrophages to eat
                                                                                                                                                          1. After this the T and B cells form memory cells - these remember how to fight the pathogen the next time it infects the body
                                                                                                                                                    2. Second line (innate)
                                                                                                                                                      1. Non - specific
                                                                                                                                                        1. Inflammation
                                                                                                                                                          1. Neutrophils and macrophages
                                                                                                                                                            1. They form pus when they die
                                                                                                                                                              1. They engulf bacteria, break them down and kill them
                                                                                                                                                            2. First line
                                                                                                                                                              1. Purpose is to stop pathogens getting into the body
                                                                                                                                                                1. Non - specific
                                                                                                                                                                  1. Parts of the body in the first line
                                                                                                                                                                    1. Saliva
                                                                                                                                                                      1. Skin
                                                                                                                                                                        1. Eyelashes
                                                                                                                                                                          1. Mucus
                                                                                                                                                                            1. Stomach acid
                                                                                                                                                                              1. Tears
                                                                                                                                                                        2. Respiratory System
                                                                                                                                                                          1. Diffusion
                                                                                                                                                                            1. The movement of particles from a high concentration to a low concentration.
                                                                                                                                                                            2. Breathing
                                                                                                                                                                              1. Gas exchange
                                                                                                                                                                                1. Alveoli - they are located on the lungs and have many features that help with diffusion
                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Only one cell thick
                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Covered in capillaries
                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Moist membranes so gases can dissolve more easily
                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Moves oxygen into the blood and takes CO2 (carbon dioxide) out of the blood
                                                                                                                                                                                    2. Digestive System
                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Includes breakdown of lipids and fats
                                                                                                                                                                                        1. The characteristics and features of villi help with efficient diffusion of nutrients
                                                                                                                                                                                          1. The nutrients - proteins, glucose and lipids - then go to the bloodstream
                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Only one cell thick
                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Surrounded by blood capillaries
                                                                                                                                                                                                1. They are located in the small intestine
                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Villi have micro- projections on them that allow a bigger surface area
                                                                                                                                                                                                  2. Breaking down foods
                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Mechanical Breakdown
                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Chewing
                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. Chemical Breakdown
                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Enzymes
                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. Metabolism
                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Chemical processes
                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Cellular respiration
                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Glucose + oxygen (O2) = carbon dioxide (CO2) + energy + water (H2O)
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