Ecology for managers (Finished)

meghansarah
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meghansarah
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First Lecture in ENV 5A5 at University of Stirling Scotland by Prof Jump.
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Ecology for managers (Finished)
1 Intro
1.1 ?? What is it??
1.1.1 Ecological or environmental are inhabited by a particular species (Abercrombie M., Hickman C, Johnstone M.L. 1966, A dictionary of Biology. London Penguin Books.)
1.2 Why Conserve??
1.2.1 Maintaince of habitat,
1.2.1.1 keeps species diversity high.
1.2.1.1.1 Terrestrial biodiversity is up to 25 times greater than ocean biodiversity (Benton M. J. (2001). "Biodiversity on land and in the sea". Geological Journal 36 (3–4): 211–230)
1.2.1.1.2 The more species there are, the more secrets they may hold. Plants and animals of different species may have different, unique and ultimately beneficial biochemicals that may prove to be important in curing diseases.
1.2.1.1.3 High diversity is insurance against extinction of a lineage. If one or a few species became extinct, there may be other closely related species that can perpetuate the lineage
1.2.1.1.4 More species means bacteria, virus, and parasites have a more difficult time decimating an ecosystem. Agricultural fields, which may have rows upon rows of crops of the same species, for example, are more susceptible to diseases and insect attacks than are highly diversified natural plant communities.
1.2.2 Ecosystem function/services
1.2.2.1 What we can get from plants
1.2.2.1.1 Trees: filter rainwater absorbing chemicals as result safe for humans to drink
1.2.2.1.2 Bacteria absorb pollution from river making the water useable again but decrease the oxygen concentration
1.2.3 Protection of genetic resorces
1.2.3.1 Potential value to achull value
1.2.3.1.1 what value is perceived to be and what the value achually is.
1.2.3.2 Changing can cause some plants to die out as they are out commpteted
1.2.3.3 Rapid enviro changes
1.2.3.3.1 Global warming, weather patterns changing
1.2.4 Tourism
1.2.4.1 Finances
1.2.4.2 Aesthetically Pleasing
1.3 How??
1.3.1 Decisions between species diversity and density.
1.3.1.1 Dceide what you want to conserve. (dependent on public opinion)
1.3.2 Climax community with fue species or high diversity but fluxuating
1.3.3
2 Scientific Principles
2.1 Plant Strategy Theory
2.1.1 Competitors
2.1.1.1 Low Stress Low distaurbace
2.1.1.2 Create a:
2.1.1.2.1 high dense canopy
2.1.1.2.1.1 Block light to plants underneath.
2.1.1.2.1.2 Restrict resource: Light
2.1.1.2.2 Rapid acending mono-cluture layer
2.1.1.2.2.1 Only one type of pant dominates
2.1.1.2.3 Defined layer of leaf production
2.1.1.2.3.1 To dominate the canopy layer and reduce light to others maximising for self
2.1.1.2.4 High mean growth rate
2.1.1.2.4.1 Has rocket groth: 'Jumps' in hight
2.1.1.2.4.1.1 Quickly grows
2.1.1.3 Eg Braken
2.1.2 Divided into three categories Competitors, rudral and stress tolerant
2.1.3 In a triangle of three types but also contimum between them all
2.1.4 Stress Tolerents
2.1.4.1 High stress Low disturbance
2.1.4.2 Long life with limited flowering
2.1.4.2.1 only flower with optimum conditions; nutrients, water, light
2.1.4.2.1.1 due to huge resorce expenditure must know they are going to survive and produce viable seeds
2.1.4.3 Low growth rate
2.1.4.3.1 Only grow with optimum conditions
2.1.4.4 Low palitiblity
2.1.4.4.1 resource use why?
2.1.4.4.1.1 resources are scares and have put resources into leaves then don't want the biomass eaten!
2.1.4.4.2 then don't need to expend resources on repair
2.1.4.4.3 taste horrible
2.1.5 Ruderals
2.1.5.1 high disturbance, low stress
2.1.5.2 Short life and early flowering
2.1.5.2.1 As early dominators of disturbed ground must establish quickly before others dominate and disperse seeds to hopefully continue linage. seeds can germinate after next disturbance due to dormancy.
2.1.5.2.2 Pass along genetic info.
2.1.5.3 Short phase of production
2.1.5.3.1 Seeds live on after original plant death continuing the lineage
2.1.5.4 high mean potential relative growth rate
2.1.5.4.1 Grow quickly
2.1.5.5 Large proportion of annual production devoted to seeds
2.1.5.5.1 main aim is to dispersal of seeds
2.1.5.6 eg Shepards Purse
2.1.6 Digrams
2.1.6.1
2.1.6.2
2.1.7 Regeneration
2.1.7.1 vegetative expansion
2.1.7.1.1 Low disturbance intensity
2.1.7.1.2 Grow slower than seed germination
2.1.7.2 Seasonal regenation
2.1.7.2.1 grow at beginning of season
2.1.7.2.1.1 Bluebells before the trees have leaves
2.1.7.3 persistant seed banks
2.1.7.3.1 pre-programed to flower
2.1.7.4 Persistant juveniles
2.1.7.4.1 don't flower until optimum time
2.1.7.5 High dispersal, hope seeds hit optimum place
2.2 Co-Existance
2.2.1 The Dormant
2.2.1.1 major contributor to total biomass of plant community
2.2.1.2 influences identity , quantity and disruption of associated spevies
2.2.1.3 Oak Tree
2.2.2 Mechinisims
2.2.2.1 influences neighbours
2.2.2.1.1 = or -
2.2.2.2 Achieves greater biomass than that of associates
2.2.2.3 +/_ controlled feedback
2.2.3
2.2.4 Mutiple species can exist in same place due to seonality Bluebells flower before trees have leaves to make optimal sunshine
2.2.5 Factors that limit the expression of dominance by any one species allow co-extsence
2.2.6 Naurall processes and stresses and habitat management can limit the expression of dominance
2.3 Succession
2.3.1 How communities develop and change over time
2.3.2 Primary or Secondary or arrested
2.3.2.1 P= removal of all spoil and plant starting with parent rock
2.3.2.1.1 caused by lava, Mud slides
2.3.2.2 S= starting with soil but no plants
2.3.2.2.1 Winter storms, Fire
2.3.2.3 A=when we stop the succession taking place
2.3.2.3.1 Heather moorland (Burning)
2.3.2.3.2 Chernoble town (pripyat) seen as stopped Arresting succession and its now a forest with whole lot inc animals.
2.3.2.3.3 Benifits us more to keep as is.
2.3.3 Caused by disturbance and can be a cycle more than a process.
2.3.4 Disturbance
2.3.4.1 Type
2.3.4.1.1 Scale Volcano to herbivory (fire to eatten)
2.3.4.1.2 density independent or dependent
2.3.4.2 severity
2.3.4.2.1 magniude of change in resorces of area
2.3.4.3 Intensity
2.3.4.3.1 energy realised over the per unit area over time
2.3.4.3.1.1 mount st helens in 1980 24 megatons thermal energy (7 by blast, rest through release of heat) and 4 billion board feet of timber lost.
2.3.4.3.2 measeure quantative ly
2.3.4.4 freq. and timeing
2.3.4.4.1 Oten not often, how much destruction depends on time of year- fseed dispersal/mateing
2.3.4.4.2 Mount St helns erupted 21 times across 6 years causing diruption, happened often over a small time fram eand has now settled down.
2.3.4.5 Pattern and size
2.3.4.5.1 Often -winter storms
2.3.4.5.2 level of devistation
2.4 Island Biogeography theory
2.4.1 relationship between species richness and habitat area is one of the most consistant ecollogical patterns
2.4.2 more than area?
2.4.2.1 yes depends on the area and the isolation of the island
2.4.3 Islands are land which is surounded by hostile land
2.4.4
2.4.4.1
2.4.5 Predictions
2.4.5.1 Large Islands suport more species compared to small island
2.4.5.2 Specise number should decline with increased isolation
2.4.5.3 no of species should become constant over time
2.4.5.3.1 Continual turn over with immagration an extinction
2.4.6 Complications
2.4.6.1 Dosnet take evolution into account
2.4.6.2 Specise not equal (as theory states) due to food chain
2.4.6.3 Habitat range not just size
2.4.6.4 comunity develop over time -Assembly Rules
3 Sampling
3.1 Phase 1
3.1.1 National Vegatation Classification
3.1.1.1 Uk Wide
3.1.1.2 Indication of what should be in the location.
3.1.1.2.1 And where the location should be.
3.1.1.2.1.1 Can give indication with location if area is natural or has been planted
3.1.2 habitat survey
3.1.2.1 Indicators
3.1.2.1.1 Indicators can indicate pH level, land management, wetness of soil
3.1.2.1.1.1 Species- Bog Cotton- indicates perment wet soil.
3.1.2.1.1.2 May flies indicate good water quality and low polution
3.1.2.2 Phisically go out and survey
3.1.2.2.1 Gives definite of boundaries
3.1.2.2.2 Can see exactly what plants grow there and the exact conditions bog and how wet!
3.1.2.2.3 Target notes
3.1.2.2.3.1 things are not going to see on the map
3.1.2.3 Arial photos and salilight immagery
3.1.2.3.1 infa red indicated heat which can be produced by crop(monoclutuer) lnd and can show the defintes of the feilds.
3.1.3 Target notes
3.1.3.1 Written in the feild
3.1.3.1.1 Gives details of area, birch wood, high canopy mature trees
3.1.3.1.2 health of the area
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