Evolution

PatrickNoonan
Mind Map by , created over 6 years ago

Leaving Certificate Group Project (Sciences) Mind Map on Evolution, created by PatrickNoonan on 06/12/2013.

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Created by PatrickNoonan over 6 years ago
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Evolution

Annotations:

  • An example of this is how animals in hot climates have larger ears than similar animals in colder climates because big ears lose heat quickly, while small ears lose heat slowly.
  • Another example is how bees are striped to warn other animals that they are dangerous
1 Micorevolution
1.1 Shorter period of time
1.2 Artificial Selection
1.2.1 Breeding where individuals with desired traits are picked as parent generation
1.2.2 Creates new breeds/variation
1.3 Changes in gene frequency
1.3.1 Positive, negative or no effect
1.3.2 Genetic mutation
1.3.2.1 Insertion
1.3.2.2 Deletion
1.3.2.3 Inversion
1.3.3 Within population/species
1.3.4 Natural
2 Macroevolution
2.1 Happens over millenia
2.2 Speciation
2.2.1 Reproductive isolation
2.2.1.1 Pre-zygotic
2.2.1.1.1 Prevention of fertilization
2.2.1.1.1.1 Mechanical
2.2.1.1.1.2 Gametic
2.2.1.1.2 Prevention of mating
2.2.1.1.2.1 Temporal
2.2.1.1.2.1.1 Different reproductive cycles
2.2.1.1.2.2 Habitat isolation
2.2.1.1.2.3 Behavioural isolation
2.2.1.1.2.3.1 Mating signals
2.2.1.2 Post-zygotic
2.2.1.2.1 Prevention of maturation and reproduction
2.2.1.2.1.1 Mortailty
2.2.1.2.1.2 Infertile
2.2.2 Sympatric
2.2.2.1 Significant mutation happens to work
2.2.3 Allopatric
2.2.3.1 Prevents interbreeding, species slowly change
2.2.3.2 Caused by barrier
3 Charles Darwin
3.1 Surveyed South America; Galapagos islands 1831-1836
3.2 Natural Selection
3.2.1 Observations
3.2.1.1 In each generation, more off-spring are produced than can survive
3.2.1.2 Populations do not grow in size
3.2.1.2.1 Individuals within a population compete for resources
3.2.1.2.1.1 Over time the population changes as advantageous heritable characterisitcs become more common generation after generation
3.2.1.3 Food and other resources are limited
3.2.1.4 Individuals within all populations vary
3.2.1.5 Many variations are heritable
3.2.1.5.1 Some individuals will inherit traits that give them a better chance of surviving and reproducing

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