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Inter-War Spain and Spanish Civil War

Description

IB History HL Inter-War Spain and Spanish Civil War Inter-War States and 20th Century Conflicts
Ethan Shannon-Craven
Mind Map by Ethan Shannon-Craven, updated more than 1 year ago
Ethan Shannon-Craven
Created by Ethan Shannon-Craven about 4 years ago
15
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Resource summary

Inter-War Spain and Spanish Civil War
  1. Fall of Monarchy & Prime de Rivera (28-30)
    1. Alfonso XIII
      1. Against modernisation
        1. Post WW1 depression
          1. 12 gvmts
            1. 1918-23
            2. Defeat in Morocco
              1. Pressure on King
                1. did not resist R's coup in 23
                  1. military defeats
              2. Rivera
                1. Tried to create auth r wing regime
                  1. undermined monarchy
                  2. Policies
                    1. infrastucture programs
                      1. ind. production developed
                        1. ended war in M
                          1. Ran up massive debts
                            1. worsened by WSC
                          2. Opposition
                            1. l-wing
                              1. Socialists
                                1. wanted solve issues through discussion
                                  1. Socialist trade union
                                    1. UGT
                                2. Anarchists
                                  1. more violent solutions
                                    1. their t. union called CNT
                                  2. Split by Rivera
                                    1. Allowed
                                      1. Banned
                                        1. Created hostility
                                    2. Problems
                                      1. econ not reformed
                                        1. no land reform
                                          1. peasants
                                          2. withdrew
                                            1. Catalonian rights
                                            2. Alienated
                                              1. Poor
                                                1. Landowners
                                                  1. army
                                                  2. Resigned 1930
                                                    1. Elections
                                                      1. showed support
                                                        1. republicans
                                                          1. liberals
                                                            1. socialists
                                                              1. Alfonso abdicated
                                                                1. C + army didn't try to save
                                                                  1. 2nd republic declared
                                                      2. Left Republic (31-33)
                                                        1. Elections
                                                          1. left/c left won
                                                            1. Azana president
                                                          2. Reforms
                                                            1. Attempt seperate C + state
                                                              1. Abolished C's role in education
                                                              2. Army
                                                                1. reduced size
                                                                  1. Offered full-pay retirement
                                                                    1. 50% left
                                                                      1. those that stayed now cons./nationalistic
                                                                        1. radicalised army
                                                                    2. Catalonia
                                                                      1. given parliament
                                                                        1. angered r. wing
                                                                        2. allowed l reform for peasants
                                                                          1. Backfired
                                                                            1. Depression
                                                                              1. fall in agr prices
                                                                                1. peasant unemployed incr
                                                                                  1. iron/stell production fell
                                                                                  2. l reform
                                                                                    1. land redistribution program
                                                                                      1. Law of 1932
                                                                                        1. enabled state takeover of estates
                                                                                        2. gmvt didn't have enough money
                                                                                          1. only 7k families benefited
                                                                                          2. key failure
                                                                                        3. Civil unrest
                                                                                          1. dealt with brutality
                                                                                            1. assault guard
                                                                                          2. New party
                                                                                            1. CEDA
                                                                                              1. defend
                                                                                                1. church
                                                                                                  1. landowners
                                                                                                  2. 1933
                                                                                                    1. Gil-Robels
                                                                                                  3. Anarchists
                                                                                                    1. Jan 1933
                                                                                                      1. A set fire to homes
                                                                                                        1. 25 died
                                                                                                          1. loss support of socialists
                                                                                                            1. A resigned
                                                                                                2. Right Republic (33-36)
                                                                                                  1. CEDA
                                                                                                    1. Gil-Robels
                                                                                                    2. Bienio Negro
                                                                                                      1. reversed l reform
                                                                                                        1. Violent repression]
                                                                                                          1. anarchist uprising
                                                                                                            1. 1934
                                                                                                              1. army
                                                                                                              2. increased chance of war?
                                                                                                            2. Church
                                                                                                              1. regained control of education
                                                                                                              2. Catalonia
                                                                                                                1. Attempted proclaim autonomy
                                                                                                                  1. failed
                                                                                                                    1. Basques now support left too
                                                                                                                  2. Auth approach
                                                                                                                    1. left unite
                                                                                                                    2. collapse
                                                                                                                      1. financial instability
                                                                                                                        1. Popular front win
                                                                                                                          1. l-wing
                                                                                                                            1. Azana regained power
                                                                                                                              1. Wanted restart reforms
                                                                                                                                1. No polit. consensus
                                                                                                                                  1. Caballero's socialist didn't join gvmt
                                                                                                                                    1. Right
                                                                                                                                      1. didn't accept reform
                                                                                                                                      2. Anarchists
                                                                                                                                        1. encouraged
                                                                                                                                          1. p seize land
                                                                                                                                            1. violence
                                                                                                                                            2. May 1936
                                                                                                                                              1. CNT called general strike
                                                                                                                                  2. CW: Immediate Causes
                                                                                                                                    1. L won 1936 elections
                                                                                                                                      1. Gil-Robels
                                                                                                                                        1. funded military coup
                                                                                                                                          1. Catalyst
                                                                                                                                            1. murder of popular CEDA leader
                                                                                                                                              1. July
                                                                                                                                            2. Date set 18th
                                                                                                                                              1. Made contact
                                                                                                                                                1. Farlange
                                                                                                                                                  1. Carlists
                                                                                                                                                  2. Discovered
                                                                                                                                                    1. Started early on 17th
                                                                                                                                                      1. Morocco
                                                                                                                                                        1. Spread to mainland
                                                                                                                                                          1. successful N. Spain/Andalusia
                                                                                                                                                            1. not in industrial areas
                                                                                                                                                              1. stalemate
                                                                                                                                                    2. Politically polarised
                                                                                                                                                      1. Fascists
                                                                                                                                                        1. communists
                                                                                                                                                      2. CW: Course
                                                                                                                                                        1. 1936
                                                                                                                                                          1. Nationalists hoped to take over in weeks
                                                                                                                                                            1. 1/2 army loyal to republic
                                                                                                                                                              1. August
                                                                                                                                                                1. N controlled most N
                                                                                                                                                                  1. failure to capture M
                                                                                                                                                                    1. prolonged war
                                                                                                                                                                      1. Called off offensive in Nov
                                                                                                                                                                  2. R controlled most S
                                                                                                                                                                  3. Foreign Aid
                                                                                                                                                                    1. B + F
                                                                                                                                                                      1. non-intervention
                                                                                                                                                                        1. favoured N
                                                                                                                                                                          1. blocked purchase f goods
                                                                                                                                                                            1. republicans
                                                                                                                                                                      2. G + I
                                                                                                                                                                        1. financial + material aid
                                                                                                                                                                          1. G
                                                                                                                                                                            1. transport planes
                                                                                                                                                                              1. F troops
                                                                                                                                                                                1. M => S
                                                                                                                                                                          2. SU
                                                                                                                                                                            1. less aid
                                                                                                                                                                              1. exchange for most S gold reserves
                                                                                                                                                                                1. inflation
                                                                                                                                                                        2. Oct
                                                                                                                                                                          1. F appointed head of N
                                                                                                                                                                        3. 1937
                                                                                                                                                                          1. Feb
                                                                                                                                                                            1. N began offensive
                                                                                                                                                                              1. Jarama
                                                                                                                                                                                1. Guadalajara
                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Aim of capturing M
                                                                                                                                                                                    1. both failed
                                                                                                                                                                                      1. massive casulaties
                                                                                                                                                                                  2. Mar
                                                                                                                                                                                    1. N attacked B Country
                                                                                                                                                                                      1. A
                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Guernica bombed by G planes
                                                                                                                                                                                          1. B morale fell
                                                                                                                                                                                            1. industry in hands of N
                                                                                                                                                                                      2. Apr
                                                                                                                                                                                        1. F merged Carlists, Nationalists etc.
                                                                                                                                                                                          1. unity
                                                                                                                                                                                            1. R divided
                                                                                                                                                                                              1. May
                                                                                                                                                                                                1. comm fought anarchists
                                                                                                                                                                                      3. 1938
                                                                                                                                                                                        1. APril
                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Nationalists reach Mediterranean
                                                                                                                                                                                            1. R Spain in 1/2
                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Catalonia isolated
                                                                                                                                                                                        2. 1939
                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Collapsed during first 3 months
                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Jan
                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Barcelona
                                                                                                                                                                                              2. Mar
                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Madrid
                                                                                                                                                                                                2. Apr
                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. F declares end of war
                                                                                                                                                                                            2. CW: Foreign intervention
                                                                                                                                                                                              1. G + I
                                                                                                                                                                                                1. didn't want another comm gov
                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. G
                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. 16k men
                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. 200 tanks
                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. 600 planes
                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Condor legion
                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. most efficient + influential help N received
                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. air superiority decisive
                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. transport F's troops
                                                                                                                                                                                                              3. Testing ground for WW2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. new planes/tanks
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Blitzkreig tactics
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2. enhance military reputation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. glory
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3. I
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. 75k men
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. 150 tanks
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. 660 aircraft
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Sent more but not as influential
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2. strengthened alliance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. encouraged aggressive f policy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2. R support
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. F + B
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Non-intervention
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. tried convince nobody support either belligerent
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. prevent R gaining arms openly
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. US also followed
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. division with USSR
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Non Intervening Pact (36)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. G + i ignored
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. USSR
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. 2.5k men
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. 1k planes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. 900 tanks
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. ideological reasons
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Withdrew 1938
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. limited support
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2. I brigades
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. justified involvement after massacres e.g. Guernica
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. 50k
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. mainly communists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. freedom, democracy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2. Withdrew Oct 1938
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. end of int support for republicans
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2. relatively weak
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2. CW: Other reasons for N victory
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Weak R military + eccon
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. N
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. expertise
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Morocco
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2. had Africanists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3. R
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Military Leadership
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. not clearly
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. defined
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. experienced
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. Lacked
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. cohesion
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. organisation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2. Econ
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. N
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. large amount agr land
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. trade with allied nations
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. R
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. blockade
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. couldn't import
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. resources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. food
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. military supplies
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. Dried up gold reserves
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. USSR
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2. Internal division
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Left groups
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Communists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Socialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Anarchists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. same side not same cause
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. e.g. May Days '37
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. street fighting against one another in B
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2. POUM (marxists)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. CNT
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Vastly different beliefs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. if won wouldn't agree on how to run country
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2. Beever
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Part of int civil war which started with RR
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3. CW: LT Causes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Regional
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Socio-Econ
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. S
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. econ backwards
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. low literacy rates
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. large gap
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. rich
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. poor
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. no support from C
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. looked to anarchists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. land redistribution
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2. 2/3 pop peasants working on latifundia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Issues
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Work
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. seasonal
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. lot migration
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. poor condition
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. rioting in countryside
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. civil guard supressed
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2. WW1 econ boom
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. neutral
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. followed by inflation :(
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3. N
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. more industry
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2. Struggle
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. centralist gvmt
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. BC + C
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. wanted independence
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. Political instability
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. weak of gvmt
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. const. monarchy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. King appointed PM
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Pm commanded Cortes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. elections
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Male pop
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. corrupt
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. real power
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. wealthy oligarchs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2. Spanish army
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Powerful
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. imperial past
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. often intervened politics
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. Unpopular
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. brutality
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2. Ineeffective
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. lost colonial empire
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. e.g. Cuba 1898 to US
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3. Church
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. rich + powerful
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. state guaranteed role in education
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. wealth
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. intervene in politics
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. opposed modernization
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. conservative
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2. resentment among poor
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2. Political opposition
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Liberals
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. supported revolution
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. 1931
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2. Small comm party
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Anarchists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. CNT
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. Socialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. PSOE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. urban areas
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. UGT
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. strikes/protests
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. Moderates
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Prieto
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2. Radicals
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Caballero
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