CD - attachment 2

becky.waine
Mind Map by , created over 6 years ago

Child Development Mind Map on CD - attachment 2, created by becky.waine on 06/24/2013.

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becky.waine
Created by becky.waine over 6 years ago
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CD - attachment 2
1 ATTACHMENT AND CHILDCARE
1.1 THE MOTHER
1.1.1 it is taken for granted that the mother as the primary caregiver is the best scenario for the mother and child.
1.1.1.1 It is possible to train such sensitivity.
1.1.1.2 abused children are more likely to become abusive parents. BABY P CASE. - 2008
1.1.1.3 "MIND-MINDEDNESS" - treat the child as an individual. helps for secure attachment.
1.1.1.3.1 BOWLBY - QUALITY of interactions, not quantity, mother doesn't have to be there at every turn.
1.1.2 It's not so much about the physical availability but more about the mother's EMOTIONAL AVAILABILITY or responsiveness. BOWLBY NAMED THIS MATERNAL SENSITIVITY. where the mother recognises and responds to cues.
1.1.2.1 an absent mother cannot be sensitive enough. a secure attachment is based on such sensitivity in the first year of life. warm / attentive and positive parenting links to the "secure" attachment type, regardless of culture.
1.1.2.2 children of mothers who are negative and rejecting are likely to be "insecure-avoidant"
1.1.2.3 children of mothers who are unreliable or inconsistent are likely to be "insecure-resistant"
1.1.2.4 depression in a parent is likely to result in unpleasant behaviours and the infant is likely to express negative emotions. "disorganised" attachment is represented by inadequate care and mal-treated children.
1.2 THE FATHER
1.2.1 RESEARCH started to include fathers in the 1990s, found differences in the quality of attachment between mothers and fathers.
1.2.2 likely to show the same attachment type to each parent.
1.2.3 fathers play a smaller part in the practical and emotional aspects of raising a child, but more time in PLAY with infants.
1.2.3.1 PLAY SENSITIVITY - adapting to the child's play, father = playmate.
1.3 IMPACT OF DAY CARE
1.3.1 placing children in non-parental care before the age of three has a detrimental effect on their attachment.
1.3.2 nowadays mothers return to work and need the occasional use of child-minding
1.3.2.1 findings in the 70s, - BELSKY - 1978 - found that there is no reason to suspect day care disrupts the child's attachment and children still preferred their mothers.
1.3.2.1.1 HOWEVER - BELSKY - 1988 - out-of-home care for more than 20 hours per week by the end of first year were more likely to show insecure attachment to mothers.
1.3.2.1.1.1 children who are used to multiple caregivers, their responses may reflect independence rather than avoidance.
1.3.3 patterns of attachment may not be due to being in day care itself but more the QUALITY OF DAY CARE, such as ratio of children to caregivers, experience and routine.
1.3.3.1 poorer families are more likely to settle for poorer quality care.
1.4 ATTACHMENT BEYOND INFANCY
1.4.1 there are lifespan implications.
1.4.2 INTERNAL WORKING MODEL - child depends less and less on the physical proximity of the mother. a child builds up expectations about others based on early relationships, which BOWLBY - 1969 - called the internal working model
1.4.3 internal working models of secure children will be one of warmth and attentiveness. and of insecure avoidant will be of coldness. of insecure-resistant children will be of inconsistency
1.4.3.1 insecure- disorganised lack a coherent IWM.
1.4.4 MAIN ET AL - 1985 - children who were securely attached went on to show more emotional coherence, showed greater enthusiasm for play, higher self-esteem, higher school attainments and more friendships.
1.4.5 ADULT ATTACHMENT INTERVIEW - looks at earliest relationships with primary caregivers, then maps onto present relationship quality. there is DIRECT MAPPING from infant to adult attachment types.
2 MEASURING ATTACHMENT
2.1 AINSWORTH - 1963 - looked at the GOAL-CORRECTED mechanism BOWLBY proposed, where earlier attachments influence later ones. she looked at samples from GANDA people and AMERICANS and found they both showed typical behaviours through the attachment phases.
2.1.1 THE STRANGE SITUATION - AINSWORTH - 1970 - lab setting, involved the mother and child together with and without a stranger, and the departure of the mother with and without a stranger and the return of the mother with and without a stranger.
2.1.1.1 performed when children are 2 years old. the situation activates the clear attachments, particularly in the REUNIONS.
2.1.1.2 ATTACHMENT TYPES - individual children differed in their attachment security.
2.1.1.2.1 3. INSECURE- RESISTANT / AMBIVALENT - great distress when mother goes, mixture of proximity-seeking and anger. resist stranger
2.1.1.2.2 2. INSECURE-AVOIDANT - indifferent to the caregiver's departure. treat mother and stranger similarly. ignoring mother on return.
2.1.1.2.3 1. SECURE ATTACHMENT - pausing exploration when stranger enters, cry and seek mother, comforted on return.
2.1.1.2.4 4. INSECURE -DISORGANISED - lack of a consistent behavioural pattern. apprehensive about caregiver, out of their depth. - MAIN AND SOLOMON - 1990. - found in dysfunctional / pathological families
2.1.1.3 CRITIQUE OF THE STRANGE SITUATION
2.1.1.3.1 POSITIVE - practical value of the strange situation procedure, entering new spaces, new people and temporary separation WILL ALL OCCUR in a child's life around that age in all cultures. similar to real experiences. UNIVERSALLY ADOPTED PROCEDURE.
2.1.1.3.2 NEGATIVE - the child has increasing amounts of stress. HOWEVER, it is not as stressful as once thought AND the infant's reponses to these events may NOT REFLECT THE REAL degree of attachment to the mother. for example, the child may be used to being cared for by others (grandparents, nursery etc), so not unsettled by stranger but may STILL HAVE a strong relationship with mother.
2.1.1.3.2.1 variations on the secure type may be due to cultural norms, for example the UK and Sweden had the highest sample of secure children, only half the chinese were secure. BEHAVIOURS INTERPRETED DIFFERENTLY, e.g. Germany has high "avoidant" rate, as the culture encourages independence.

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