1.1.1 Warms, moistens and filters inspired air. Detects smell
1.2.1 Passageway for air and food. Warming and
humidifying, taste, hearing, protection, speech
1.3.1 Protection of sound, speech, protection of lower respiratory tract.
1.4.1 Support and patency, cough reflex and warms, humidifies, filters.
1.5 Bronchi and bronchioles
1.5.1 Controls air entry, warming and humidifying,
support and patency, cough reflex
1.6.1 External respiration, defense against
microbes, warming and humidifying
2 Role of the R'system in maintaining homeostasis
3 To identify some medical terminology associated with the R'system.
4.1 Respiration Steps:
4.1.1 Pulmonary Ventilation
188.8.131.52 Process by which gases exchanged between the atmosphere and
lung aveoli. Consists of: - Inspiration - Expiration. Air moves due to
changes in pressure.
4.1.2 External Respiration
4.1.3 Internal Respiration
4.2 Pressure V Volume - Boyle's Law
4.2.1 Pressure of gas in a container is inversely proportional to the volume of the container.
184.108.40.206 IF VOLUME INCREASES, THEN PRESSURE DECREASES
4.3 Thoracic cavity - size changes
4.3.1 Changes in size of thoracic cavity during
inhalation & exhalation. During inhalation, the
ribs move upwards and upwards like the handle
on a bucket.
4.4 Control of Respiration
4.4.1 Respiration Centre - Located in the brain stem: - Consists of >
Medullary rythmicity centre >Pnumotaxic area > Apneustic area
220.127.116.11 Regulated by: > cortical influences > chemical stimuli >
proprioceptor input > inflation reflex > other influences
18.104.22.168.1 Medullary Rythmicity area: - consists of >
Inspiratory area > Expiratory area - Controls
basic rythm : IN 2 secs, OUT 3 secs
4.4.2 Apneustic area: -located in the pons -Stimulates inspiratory area -
prolonged inspiration and inhibition of expiration
4.4.3 Pneumotaxic area: -Located in Pons, -Transmits inhibitory impulses to inspiratory
center - Limit duration of inspiration - increased respiratory rate
4.4.4 Regulation of Respiratory Center:
22.214.171.124 Cortical influences: - Voluntary control of breathing
eg helpful in swimming. -Emotional stimuli eg crying
126.96.36.199 Chemical stimuli: - chemoreceptors monitor levels of 02 and co2. - Central and peripheral chemoreceptors exist. - co2 increase, H+ increase and o2
decreases cause inspiratory center to become active - increased rate and depth of breathing. - Maintenance of homeostasis.