The Effects of Exercise on the Muscular, Circulatory and Respiratory Systems

Dan Allibone
Flashcards by Dan Allibone, updated more than 1 year ago
Dan Allibone
Created by Dan Allibone about 4 years ago


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Question Answer
What can muscular training increase? Self esteem Balance Muscle strength and tone Bone density Health and wellbeing
Why is muscular training important for OAPs? Helps to ease arthritis pain Slows muscle loss at older ages
What are some other short term effects of exercise on the muscular system? Prevent injury Strength Size Power Endurance
What are some short term effects of exercise on the respiratory system? Increase in pulse/heart rate Increased body temperature Increased stroke volume Increased cardiac output Increased breathing and respiration rate Increased tidal volume Minute volume increases Muscle fatigue/ lactic acid increase Increased muscle temperature
What are some long term effects of exercise on the Muscular system? Increase in mitochondria numbers so more energy is produced Muscles, bones and ligaments become stronger so they can cope with the additional stress and impact being applied Muscles can store more glycogen for energy Skeletal muscles have more myoglobin and can store more oxygen and transport more to the mitochondria Enzymes involved in energy production become more efficient and can speed up the metabolism More anaerobic exercise can be performed because more energy is stored in the muscles before exercise
What happens to the diaphragm and intercostals in the long term? Increase in strength
How does this affect respiratory systems? Larger respiratory volumes which allows more oxygen to be diffused into the blood flow
In the long term what effect does exercise have on capillaries surrounding the alveoli? There are more and they are greater in diameter so this allows a greater rate of gaseous exchange
How does long term exercise help the working muscles? There is a greater rate of oxygen diffusion so there is more oxygen delivered to the working muscles and more carbon dioxide is removed. An increased vital capacity also does this by bringing in more air per breath. Minute ventilation also increases so you can breathe more in one minute
What effects does long term exercise have on the cardiac muscles? Cardiac muscles strengthen so more blood can be pumped more quickly as the walls of the heart are now thicker and stronger and also the number of red blood cells increases, these mean that more blood and therefore oxygen can be delivered to muscles during exercise
Why does resting heart rate decrease? Because the body's circulatory system is more efficient
Less lactic acid builds up, why? Because the body can produce more oxygen so anaerobic exercise occurs less and also the body can remove waste products quicker.
What happens to arterial walls and what effect does this have? They become more elastic and this creates a better tolerance to changes in blood pressure
What are some short term effects of exercise on the circulatory system? Adrenaline is released (this also occurs in anticipation sometimes) Cardiac output is increased Increased amounts of lactic acid and carbon dioxide are produced Oxygen levels within the blood decrease Blood pressure increases, this increases flow rate Vasodilation and vasoconstriction occur to direct blood flow.
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