Microbiology Part 2

Lavinia Hayde
Mind Map by Lavinia Hayde, updated more than 1 year ago
Lavinia Hayde
Created by Lavinia Hayde over 5 years ago
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Microbiology Part 2

Resource summary

Microbiology Part 2
1 Describe what disinfectants, antiseptics, and antibiotics are and how they work
1.1 Disinfectants
1.1.1 These are usually quite strong substances
1.1.2 used on non living things
1.1.3 to reduce microbial growth
1.1.4 e.g Janola
1.2 Antiseptics
1.2.1 Applied to Skin
1.2.2 to reduce the amount of microbe numberes
1.2.3 e.g dettol
1.3 Antibiotics
1.3.1 are chemicals specifically designed by one organism to kill another
1.3.2 Discovered by Alexander Fleming
1.3.2.1 In 1928 Sir Alexander Fleming arrives home from 2 week holiday
1.3.2.1.1 left in sink petri dishes with bacteria in them
1.3.2.1.1.1 noticed that the mould was encircled by a ' clear yellow' substance
1.3.2.1.1.1.1 London was hit by cold spell- Fleming noticed Staphylococcus spread across plate except for the fungi secton
1.3.2.1.1.1.1.1 he deduced the mould released substance inhabited bacterial growth
1.3.2.1.1.1.1.1.1 Discovered antibacterial substance not present in all molds
1.3.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Only in Penicillium notatum
1.3.3 Not effective against viral infections
1.3.3.1 antibiotics are designed to react to their allocated, particular bacteria
2 List some uses of microbes
2.1 Viruses

Annotations:

  • http://www.garlandscience.com/res/pdf/9780815341505_ch02.pdf
2.1.1 Gene Therapy
2.1.2 Cancer prevention and control
2.1.3 vaccines
2.1.4 Biological Pest Contrl
2.2 Bacteria

Annotations:

  • http://www.livestrong.com/article/29090-good-uses-bacteria/
2.2.1 Recycling Waste
2.2.2 Helps your digestion system
2.2.3 Treatment of sewage
2.2.4 Production of cheese and yoghurt
2.2.5 Insulin- breakdown of sugar
2.2.6 Pest control
2.3 Fungi

Annotations:

  • http://www.livestrong.com/article/174197-uses-of-fungus/
2.3.1 antibiotics e.g penicillin
2.3.2 Food e.g mushrooms, truffles
2.3.3 Bread Production- Yeast
2.3.4 Alcohol Production- fermentation
2.3.5 Used in Cheese- Moulds
2.3.6 Decompose- help break down rubbish
2.3.7 Dyes
3 Explain the differences between disinfectants, antiseptics, and antibiotics
3.1 Antibiotics
3.1.1 1. to reduce bacterial to acceptable standards
3.1.1.1 or cease bacterial growth
3.1.1.1.1 or kill bacteria
3.2 Disinfectants
3.2.1 are not designed for living organisms
3.2.1.1 are used on inanimate things or surfaces
3.2.1.1.1 to stop or overall kill the microbes
3.3 Antiseptics
3.3.1 Applied to skin to reduce amount of bacterial growth
3.3.1.1 are cleansers
4 Discuss the effect of antibiotic resistance

Annotations:

  • http://www.tufts.edu/med/apua/about_issue/about_antibioticres.shtml
4.1 caused by people mot finishing the antibiotics prescribed to them from doctors
4.1.1 as they feel better and deem themselves healthy again
4.1.1.1 While most of the bacteria are destroyed the strongest and most resistant survive
4.1.1.1.1 They adapt to the antibiotics and are capable of withstanding the affects
4.1.1.1.1.1 They begin to reproduce
4.1.1.1.1.1.1 Which eventually leads to a SuperBug
4.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 It is possible for bacteria to loose their antibacterial resistance- although process is extremely slow
4.1.1.1.1.1.2 " Vertically" inheritance of antibacterial traits
4.1.1.1.1.1.2.1 or "horizontally"- bacteria exchange and swap genetic genes with others
4.1.1.1.2 selective pressure: only destroying susceptible bacteria, leaving stronger bacteria to grow and reproduce
4.1.2 Other two ways

Annotations:

  • http://www.tufts.edu/med/apua/about_issue/about_antibioticres.shtml
4.1.2.1 1.genetic mutation
4.1.2.1.1 1. some mutations cause bacteria to acquire chemicals (enzymes)
4.1.2.1.1.1 Which inactivates antibiotics
4.1.2.1.1.2 2. Cause bacterium to destroy antibiotic's target objective
4.1.2.2 2.gaining resistance from other bacterium
4.1.2.2.1 receive resistant genes from other bacterium
4.1.2.2.1.1 called conjugation
4.1.2.2.1.1.1 simple mating procedure that allows transfer of genetic code
4.1.2.2.1.1.1.1 can also be transported through viruses
4.1.2.2.1.1.1.1.1 genetic qualities stored in virus's head
4.1.2.2.1.1.1.1.1.1 qualities injected into the virus's victim
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