Nadia Burns Her Hand (skin burns)

Abdelrahman Nouh
Mind Map by , created about 1 year ago

Mind Map on Nadia Burns Her Hand (skin burns), created by Abdelrahman Nouh on 10/29/2018.

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Abdelrahman Nouh
Created by Abdelrahman Nouh about 1 year ago
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Nadia Burns Her Hand (skin burns)
1 Types
1.1 radiation
1.2 contact burns
1.3 chemical
1.4 electrical
1.4.1 true high tension current flows through individual
1.4.2 flash heat from a high voltage current arc current doesn't flow
1.5 fire
1.5.1 flame burns usually inhalation
1.6 scalds
1.6.1 liquid spill immersion
1.6.2 steam
1.6.3 grease
2 demography
2.1 name: Nadia
2.1.1 incident burned her hand with hot oil
2.2 age: 55
2.3 occupation: chef
2.4 marital status: married
3 skin
3.1 3 layers
3.1.1 epidermis consists of 5 layers from bottom to top basale spinosum granulosum lucidum corneum
3.1.2 dermis consists of 2 layers reticular papillary
3.1.3 subcutaneous layer adipose tissue
4 Effects
4.1 Local
4.1.1 model of Jackson outermost: zone of hyperemia Inner region: zone of coagulation 2nd layer: zone of stasis
4.2 Systemic
4.2.1 metabolism increased basal metabolic rate
4.2.2 immunity down regulation
4.2.3 respiratory ARDS bronchoconstriction
4.2.4 cardiovascular hypovolemia hypotension hypoperfusion
5 Severity
5.1 1st degree
5.1.1 only epidermis involved pain - redness - dry & peeling skin
5.2 2nd degree
5.2.1 epidermis and part of dermis involved pain - redness - blisters
5.3 3rd degree
5.3.1 all skin layers involved charred skin - leathery texture - no pain
5.4 4th degree
5.4.1 subcutaneous layer lost
6 Coagulative necrosis
6.1 cell death
6.1.1 apoptosis no inflammation shrunken nucleus physiological or pathological intact nucleus
6.1.2 necrosis inflammation leads to systemic fever decrease availability of zinc and iron bacteria cannot tolerate heat caused by PGE2 bradykinins stimulate hypothalamus importance fights infection kills pathogens by by immune cells and reactions mediates healing by scar permanent ex: neurons by normal tissue stable ex: liver labile ex: skin repair scar formation VEGF & FGF-2 angiogenesis FGF-2 / PDGF / TGF granulation tissue formation PDGF & TGF-B deposition of connective tissue MMPs & TIMPs Remodeling cardinal signs redness & heat due to increased vascular permeability (vasodilation) swelling due to accumulation of exudate in the interstitial spaces exerts pressure on pain receptors pain due to stimulation of loss of function caused by all other factors causes injury autoimmune diseases infections entry & multiplication of a microorganism in the body parasites fungi viruses bacteria ivading normal flora risks opportunistic infections nosocomial infections indigenous infections a swab is taken for investigation and to decide which antibiotic to use investigations: lab tests gram staining + catalase test + staph coagulase test + aureus - epidermidis / saprophyticus / etc... - strept hemolysis alpha pneumoniae viridans Beta pyogenes agalactiae gamma enterococcus - antibiotics Mechanisms cell membrane inhibitors cell wall inhibitors nucleic acid synthesis inhibitors viral replication inhibitors metabolites protein synthesis inhibitors favored characteristics selective toxicity microbicidal stable active in the presence of organic compounds extensive distribution can be taken orally or IV functions seal body space mitigate pathogens fermentation of fiber tissue homeostasis microorganisms present in the body pathogenic symbionts commensals swelled nucleus pathological disrupted group nucleus
7 complications

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