Language & Thought

Kev Campbell
Mind Map by , created about 6 years ago

Bachelor's Degree Psychology Mind Map on Language & Thought, created by Kev Campbell on 08/03/2013.

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Kev Campbell
Created by Kev Campbell about 6 years ago
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Language & Thought
1 Uniquely Human Language Festures (Aitcheson)
1.1 Semanticity
1.1.1 Words to represent objects & actions
1.2 Displacement
1.2.1 Ability to refer to other time and place
1.3 Structure Dependence
1.3.1 Chomsky: deep structure of language.
1.3.2 Pinker & Bloom: syntax may be adaptive.
1.4 Creativity
1.4.1 Ability to understand & produce infinite number of utterences
2 Language of Thought
2.1 Nativism
2.1.1 Comsky
2.1.1.1 Innate universal language 'syntax' of thought
2.1.2 Fodor
2.1.2.1 Modular
2.1.2.1.1 Informationally encapsulated
2.1.2.2 Non-modular
2.1.2.2.1 Thinking & Memory
2.2 Structure Propositions
2.2.1 Constraints on sequences and combinations in language also apply to thought
2.3 Innateness of Concepts
2.3.1 Attaching names to pre-existing concepts.
2.4 Propositional Attitude
2.4.1 a mental stance, such as knowing, hoping or believing.
2.4.1.1 (Assumed to have syntax)
3 Radical Pragmatics
3.1 Differs from nativism in that it highlights the social dimention of language.
3.2 Polysemy (meanings are fluid, contextual)
3.2.1 Irony: intended, rather than literal meaning.
3.2.1.1 Grice
3.2.1.1.1 Implacature
3.2.1.2 Sperber & Wilson
3.3 Authorship
3.3.1 Roles of author, reader & text are constructed.
3.3.1.1 Rimmon-Kenan
4 Linguistic Determanism
4.1 Sapir-Wharf hypothesis
4.1.1 Thought is determined by the language we speak
4.1.2 Challenged by Heider & Olivier
4.1.2.1 No difference in memory for colour between two languages with different number of colour terms. English, 11: Dani 2.
4.2 Spatial Cognition
4.2.1 Spatial layout and orientation varies between languages.
4.2.1.1 Boroditsky
4.2.1.1.1 Time is thought of as horizontal in English, but vertical in Manderin.
4.2.1.1.1.1 (Findings have not been replicated in other studies)
4.2.1.2 Difference in reconstruction of spatial array of objects between Dutch & Tzeltal speakers.
4.2.1.3 Challenged by Li & Gleitman who stated environment was more influential.
4.3 Colour Perception
4.3.1 Brown & Lenneberg found differences in colour terms in different languages affected speed in naming colours.
5 Theory of Mind
5.1 Propositional attitude ascriptions
5.1.1 Vygotsky: important in shaping social intelligence.
5.2 Wimmer & Perner: Maxi, false-belief task.
5.3 ToM lacks in autistic spectrum disorders
5.3.1 Wimmer & Mayringer: evidence against poor executive function as a cause.
5.3.2 Clements & Perner: linguistic competence possibly related to ToM
5.3.2.1 however, chimps also show aspects of ToM: Hare & Tomasello
6 Piaget
6.1 Constructivist view: language dependent on thought for development.
6.1.1 Emergent aspect of general cognition.
6.1.1.1 Supported by parallel development in other symbolic function eg. symbolic play.
6.1.2 Nelson challenge based on lack of linguistic impairment in blind children
6.1.3 Does not exclude Nativist approach, as cognitive universals drive development.
6.1.4 Xu challenged as object permanence does not always precede concepts and naming of objects.

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