Theories of Development

seapsych
Mind Map by seapsych, updated more than 1 year ago
seapsych
Created by seapsych about 8 years ago
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Finals Child Development Mind Map on Theories of Development, created by seapsych on 08/04/2013.

Resource summary

Theories of Development
  1. Domains of Development:
    1. physical
      1. maturation of brain & CNS
        1. motor
          1. sensory/perceptual
            1. language
              1. cognition
                1. emotional
                  1. social
                    1. personality
                      1. moral
                      2. Behaviourism
                        1. (Watson)
                          1. development observed via overt BH
                            1. development from learned associations / responses in environment
                              1. Little Albert - conditioned fear response to rat
                          2. (Bandura 1977)
                            1. Social-learning Theory
                              1. Operant AND Observational Learning
                                1. People are cognitive, info-processing beings
                                  1. Anticipation/belief of/in outcome shapes DEV
                                    1. Observational learning = learning from observing BH of others
                            2. (Skinner 1953)
                              1. Operant Learning Theory
                                1. Development shaped by external stimuli
                                  1. consequences = reinforcers or punishers
                              2. Precise & Testable
                                1. aids Bh modification techs
                                  1. gives info about all dev aspects
                                  2. Psychoanalytic Theories
                                    1. (Erikson)
                                      1. 8 Psychosocial Stages
                                        1. Oral: trust vs mistrust
                                          1. Anal: autonomy vs shame
                                            1. Phallic:initiative vs guilt
                                              1. Latency: industry vs inferiority
                                                1. Genital:identity vs role confusion
                                                  1. Young Adulthood: intimacy vs isolation
                                                    1. Adulthood: generativity vs stagnation
                                                      1. Maturity: ego integrity vs despair
                                      2. (Freud)
                                        1. Sexual
                                      3. Cognitive Development
                                        1. (Piaget 1960's)
                                          1. CHildren active explorers=Schemas
                                            1. 4 DEV Stages
                                              1. 1. Sensorimotor
                                                1. 2. Preoperational
                                                  1. 3. Concrete Operations
                                                    1. 4. Formal Operations =
                                                      1. assimilation & accommodation = resolving disequilibriums
                                                        1. = adaptation to environment
                                        2. Information Processing
                                          1. Mind = Computer
                                            1. Info flows in-->operated on-->output - answers, inferences, solutions
                                              1. Cognitive DEV = age-related changes in mind's hardware (brain) & software (mental processes eg attention,memory)
                                                1. Brain-maturation = faster info processing
                                                  1. influenced by experiences, ie the problems presented to children
                                                    1. Probs = not naturalistic eg lab conditions, underestimates diversity of cognition
                                          2. BIological/Evolutionary
                                            1. (Bowlby 1973)
                                              1. humans born with adaptive attributes thru natural selection
                                                1. adaptive attributes = DEV = survival
                                                  1. humans influenced by experiences
                                                    1. 'sensitive periods' = times when certaiin adaptive characteristics arelikelyto DEV, provided environ supports DEV
                                                      1. biologically-influenced attributes affect the type of learningexperiences received
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