Ahmed, a 13-year-old presented to the clinic with

Description

Mind Map on Ahmed, a 13-year-old presented to the clinic with, created by group C year 3 on 11/22/2018.
group C year 3
Mind Map by group C year 3, updated more than 1 year ago
group C year 3
Created by group C year 3 over 5 years ago
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Resource summary

Ahmed, a 13-year-old presented to the clinic with
  1. Earache
    1. Causes
      1. Otitis Media
        1. Infection of Middle Ear
          1. Signs and Symptoms
            1. Earache, ear pulling, purulent discharge, diminished hearing, tinnitis
            2. Causative Microorganisms
              1. Bacteria
                1. S. pneumoniae H. influenzae Moraxella catarrhalis
                2. Viruses
                  1. RSV Rhinoviruses Influenza viruses Adenovirus
              2. No tenderness Normal EAC, Edematous and bulging tympanic membraen
              3. Otitis Externa
                1. Infection of External Ear
                  1. Causative Microrganisms
                    1. Pseudomonas aeruginosa S. aureus Proteus mirabilis
                  2. Tenderness EAC swollen Normal Tympanic membrane
                  3. Eustachian tube dysfunction
                    1. Referred Pain
                      1. TMJ Syndrome
                        1. Ear Pain
                          1. Jaw Pain
                            1. Neck Pain
                              1. Headache
                              2. Dental Infection
                                1. Pharyngitis Tonsillitis
                                  1. Sinusitis/Rhinitis
                                    1. Trigeminal Neuralgia
                                      1. Esophagitis
                                      2. Foreign body in the ear
                                        1. Trauma
                                          1. Laceration
                                            1. Abrasion
                                              1. Barotrauma
                                                1. Deep Sea Diving
                                              2. Mastoiditis
                                                1. Mumps
                                                  1. Psoriasis
                                                  2. Definition
                                                    1. Pain in the ear
                                                      1. Anatomy of the ear

                                                        Attachments:

                                                        1. Inner Ear
                                                          1. Sensory Organ: Cochlea
                                                            1. Scala vestibuli
                                                              1. Contains Perilymph
                                                                1. Helicotrema
                                                                  1. Point of Communication
                                                                2. Scala media
                                                                  1. Contains Endolymph
                                                                  2. Scala tymoani
                                                                3. Middle Ear
                                                                  1. Auditory ossicles
                                                                    1. Malleus
                                                                      1. Incus
                                                                        1. Stapes
                                                                      2. External Ear
                                                                        1. Collects sound waves and channels them down the auditory channel
                                                                        2. Seperated by: Tympanic Membrane
                                                                            1. Pearly grey, translucent, with a sharp light reflex and bony landmarks
                                                                  2. Ear Discharge
                                                                    1. Types
                                                                      1. Wax
                                                                        1. Pus
                                                                          1. Mucus and/or Muco-pus
                                                                            1. Blood
                                                                              1. Fresh blood
                                                                                1. Tinged
                                                                                2. CSF
                                                                                3. Causes
                                                                                  1. Cancer of Ear Canal
                                                                                    1. Chronic Purulent Otitis Media
                                                                                      1. Trauma
                                                                                        1. Otitis externa Swimmers Ear
                                                                                      2. Vertigo
                                                                                        1. Spinning sensation while body is stationary with respect to surroundings
                                                                                          1. In a healthy person, stability is mainted by the vestibular apparatus
                                                                                              1. Otolith organs
                                                                                                1. Saccule
                                                                                                  1. Macula is vertical
                                                                                                    1. Up and Down
                                                                                                  2. Utricle
                                                                                                    1. Macula is horizontal
                                                                                                      1. Right and left
                                                                                                      1. Macula
                                                                                                        1. sensory organ
                                                                                                          1. Covered in a gelatinous layer
                                                                                                            1. Hair
                                                                                                              1. statoconia
                                                                                                                1. CaCO3 Stones
                                                                                                        2. Semicircular canals
                                                                                                    2. Tinnitis
                                                                                                      1. Types
                                                                                                        1. Subjective
                                                                                                          1. Only patient can hear it, most common type
                                                                                                          2. Objective
                                                                                                            1. When both patient and doctor can hear it, more rare
                                                                                                          3. Ringing, buzzing, roaring or clicking
                                                                                                            1. Sounds one normally does not hear
                                                                                                              1. Physiology of normal hearing
                                                                                                                  1. ss
                                                                                                              2. Causes
                                                                                                                1. Age-related hearing loss
                                                                                                                  1. Exposure to loud noise
                                                                                                                    1. Earwax blockage
                                                                                                                      1. Changes in ear bones
                                                                                                                        1. Acoustic neuroma
                                                                                                                          1. Blood related causes
                                                                                                                            1. Atherosclerosis
                                                                                                                              1. High blood pressure
                                                                                                                                1. Arteriovenous malformation
                                                                                                                                2. Medications
                                                                                                                                  1. Chloroquine Aspirin Diuretics
                                                                                                                              2. Aural Polyp
                                                                                                                                1. Pedunculated granulation tissue Mass
                                                                                                                                  1. Causes
                                                                                                                                    1. Infection
                                                                                                                                      1. Cholestatoma
                                                                                                                                        1. Cystic loculation of squamous epiithelium in the middle ear or mastoid process which enlarged by erosion of underlying bone
                                                                                                                                          1. Types
                                                                                                                                            1. Congenital
                                                                                                                                              1. This type of cholesteatoma is very rare, and occurs when squamous epithelium residue remains in the middle ear during development of the embryo.
                                                                                                                                              2. Acquired
                                                                                                                                                1. Primary
                                                                                                                                                  1. Retraction Pocket
                                                                                                                                                    1. Basal Cell Hyperplasia
                                                                                                                                                      1. Squamous Metaplasia
                                                                                                                                                      2. Secondary
                                                                                                                                                        1. Epithelial migration
                                                                                                                                                        2. Teriairy
                                                                                                                                                          1. Post-traumatic
                                                                                                                                                            1. Post-tympanoplasty
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