GENETIC PROCESSES

safeawija
Mind Map by safeawija, updated more than 1 year ago
safeawija
Created by safeawija over 5 years ago
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Mind Map on GENETIC PROCESSES, created by safeawija on 11/22/2014.

Resource summary

GENETIC PROCESSES
1 MEIOSIS
1.1 SEXUAL REPRODUCTION

Annotations:

  • The production of new living organisms by combining genetic information from two individuals of different sexes.
1.1.1 HAPLOID

Annotations:

  • (Of a cell or nucleus) having a single set of unpaired chromosomes.
1.1.1.1 FERTILIZATION

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  • The action or process of fertilizing an egg, female animal, or plant involving the fusion of male and female gametes to form a zygote.
1.1.1.1.1
1.1.1.1.2 OOGENESIS

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  • The production or development of an ovum.
1.1.1.1.2.1
1.1.1.1.3 SPERMATOGENESIS

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  • The production or development of mature spermatozoa.
1.1.1.1.3.1
1.1.1.2 GAMETE

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  • A mature haploid male or female germ cell that is able to unite with another of the opposite sex in sexual reproduction to form a zygote.
1.1.1.2.1 ZYGOTE

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  • A diploid cell resulting from the fusion of two haploid gametes; a fertilized ovum.
1.1.1.2.1.1
1.1.2 ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION

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  • Mode of reproduction by which offspring arise from  a single organism and inherit the genes from that parent only.
1.1.3
1.1.4
1.2 SEX CELLS

Annotations:

  • A cell responsible for transmitting DNA to the next generation.
1.3 HOMOLOGOUS CHROMOSMES

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  • A set of one maternal chromosome and one paternal chromosome that pair up with each other inside a cell during meiosis.
1.3.1 GENES

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  • A unit of heredity that is transferred from a parent to offspring and is held to determine some characteristics of the offspring.
1.3.1.1 CROSSING OVER

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  • The exchange of genes between homologous chromosomes, resulting in a mixture of parental characteristics in offspring.
1.3.2 KARYOTYPE

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  • The number and visual appearance of the chromosomes of the nuclei of an organism or species.
1.4 SEX CHROMOSOMES

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  • A chromosome involved with determining the sex of an organism, typically one of two kinds.
1.4.1 KARYOTYPE

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  • The number and visual appearance of the chromosomes in the cell nuclei of an organism or species.
1.5 SYNAPSIS

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  • The fusion of chromosome pairs at the start of meiosis.
2 DNA
2.1 PHOSPHATES
2.2 DOUBLE HELIX

Annotations:

  • A pair of parallel helices intertwined about a common axis, especially that in the structure of the DNA molecule.
2.2.1
2.3 NUCLEOSIDES

Annotations:

  • A compound (cytosine, adenine, etc.) commonly found in DNA or RNA, consisting of a purine or pyrimidine base linked to a sugar. 
2.3.1 NITROGENOUS BASES

Annotations:

  • A nitrogen containing molecule that has the same chemical properties as a base. 
2.3.1.1 THYMINE
2.3.1.1.1 COMPLEMENTARY BASE PAIRS
2.3.1.1.1.1
2.3.1.2 GUANINE
2.3.1.2.1 COMPLMENTARY BASE PAIRS

Annotations:

  • Either of the nucleotide bases linked by a hydrogen bond on opposite strands of DNA or double-stranded RNA.
2.3.1.3 ADENINE
2.3.1.3.1
2.3.1.4 CYTOSINE
2.3.1.4.1
2.3.2 DEOXYRIBOSE

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  • A sugar derived from ribose.
3 MITOSIS
3.1 DIPLOID

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  • (Of a cell or nucleus) containing two complete sets of chromosomes, one from each parent. 
3.2 SOMATIC CELLS

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  • Any cell of a living organism other than the reproductive cells.
3.2.1 AUTOSOMES

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  • Any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome.
3.2.1.1
3.3 CELL CYCLE

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  • Stages of mitosis.
3.3.1 INTERPHASE

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  • - Cells grow. - Make structural proteins. - Transport nutrients to where they are needed. - Eliminate waste. - Prepares for the next stages of mitosis.
3.3.1.1 PROTEINS

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  • Repair damaged parts
3.3.1.1.1
3.3.1.2 CENTROMERE

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  • The structure that holds chromatids together
3.3.1.2.1
3.3.1.3 CHROMATIN

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  • The tangled fibrous complex of DNA and protein within a eukaryotic nucleus.
3.3.1.3.1
3.3.2 PROPHASE

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  • 1st stage of cell division.
3.3.2.1 CHROMOSOMES

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  • Chromatin condenses into chromosomes.
3.3.2.1.1
3.3.2.2 CENTROSOMES

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  • Small protein bodies that are found in the cytoplasm of animals cells.
3.3.2.2.1 SPINDLE FIBRES

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  • Protein structures that guide chromosomes during cell division. Formed from centrosomes.
3.3.2.2.1.1
3.3.3 METAPHASE

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  • The chromosomes line up along the center axis of the cell.
3.3.4 ANAPHASE

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  • The chromosomes split up and chromatids are pulled to the opposite ends of the cell.
3.3.4.1 CHROMATIDS

Annotations:

  • Each of the two threadlike strands into which a chromosome divides during cell division. Each contains a double helix of DNA.
3.3.4.1.1
3.3.5 TELOPHASE

Annotations:

  • A nuclear membrane forms around each set of chromatids.
3.3.6 CYTOKINESIS

Annotations:

  • Pinching off the cell into 2 parts.
3.4 SISTER CHROMATID

Annotations:

  • Pieces of identical DNA that are crucial in the process of cell replication and division.
3.4.1
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