Tectonic Landscapes

Emilia Hepple
Mind Map by Emilia Hepple, updated more than 1 year ago
Emilia Hepple
Created by Emilia Hepple about 6 years ago
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GCSE Geography Mind Map on Tectonic Landscapes, created by Emilia Hepple on 11/23/2014.

Resource summary

Tectonic Landscapes
1 Crusts
1.1 Oceanic
1.1.1 5-10km thick
1.1.2 High density
1.1.3 Generally basalt rock
1.1.4 e.g. Pacific plate
1.2 Continental
1.2.1 25-100km thick
1.2.2 Low density
1.2.3 Generally granite rock
1.2.4 e.g. Eurasian plate
1.3 Type of crust affects what happens at plate boundaries
1.4 Convection currents in the mantle cause the plates to move
2 Plate Boundaries
2.1 Convergent
2.1.1 Continental-continental
2.1.1.1 Two continental plates push together
2.1.1.2 Landforms and Features
2.1.1.2.1 Destructive earthquakes up to 9,0 on the Richter scale as a result of friction between the plates
2.1.1.2.2 Fold mountains - neither plate subducts so they are both pushed up
2.1.1.2.2.1 e.g. the Himalayas, formed when the Indian and Eurasian plates collided
2.1.2 Continental-oceanic
2.1.2.1 The two plates push together but the heavier oceanic plate subducts beneath the continental plate
2.1.2.2 Landforms and Features
2.1.2.2.1 Ocean trenches at the subduction zones
2.1.2.2.1.1 e.g. Peru-Chile trench
2.1.2.2.1.1.1 Ranges from 8-10km in depth
2.1.2.2.1.1.2 Runs along the east Pacific Ocean where the Nazca and South America plates meet
2.1.2.2.2 Earthquakes caused as the plates rub against each other, creating friction
2.1.2.2.3 Violent composite volcanoes
2.1.2.2.3.1 e.g. Mount St Helens
2.2 Divergent
2.2.1 Two or more plates move apart and magma rises up from the mantle to fill the gap and create new crust.
2.2.2 Occurs mainly in the middle of oceans
2.2.3 Landforms and Features
2.2.3.1 Shield volcanoes
2.2.3.1.1 e.g. Iceland and the mid-Atlantic Ridge; the Eurasian and North American plates move apart
2.2.3.2 Rift valleys
2.2.3.2.1 e.g. the Great African Rift Valley
2.3 Conservative
2.3.1 When plates slide past each other, either in opposite directions or the same way but at different speeds.
2.3.2 Landforms and Features
2.3.2.1 Violent and frequent earthquakes
2.3.2.2 Fault lines
2.3.2.2.1 e.g. San Andreas Fault, California
3 Volcanoes
3.1 Composite/Strato
3.1.1 Form at convergent boundaries
3.1.2 Tall with steep flanks
3.1.3 Formed from layers of lava and ash
3.1.4 High viscosity lava - either Andesite or Rhyolite
3.1.5 Make explosive eruptions; hot ash clouds called pyroclastic flows
3.2 Shield
3.2.1 Divergent boundaries and hotspots
3.2.2 Low wide cone shape with gentle slope
3.2.3 Runny basaltic lava flows away from vent quickly to create a low, wide volcanic cone
3.2.4 Low viscosity lava
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