GIS & Observations- Almost-finnished

meghansarah
Mind Map by meghansarah, updated more than 1 year ago
meghansarah
Created by meghansarah about 6 years ago
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Description

Two lectures for the SCI u 5T5 course 2014 at University of Stirling. the introduction to GIS and Earth Observation Lectures.

Resource summary

GIS & Observations- Almost-finnished
  1. GIS
    1. GIS is a system with underlying science.
      1. what is it?
        1. computerised maps that information can be added to to form a data map
          1. use multiple information, from twitter/Facebook/ pictured uploads hash tags to desease infected regions.
          2. used by?
            1. Scientists
              1. Brown webber and Debie 2014 used it to gauge the 'value' of national park land within one national park of the usa. they got participants to 'drop' points on google maps to determin their favourite places!
                1. can use GIS pacakages to see best locations for re-introduction of wildlife. can get the softwar to show the locations 50m from a river, 100m from a road, 20m of a forest, show all locations
                  1. complex packagaes cost lots of money
                  2. Internet
                    1. hash tags
                      1. people use the same hastage which can show as a ripple through twitter/facebook/phot sharing, like #1stworldproblems!
                        1. #selfie was the most used hash tag of 2014
                          1. instrgram stats
                          2. 13th dec the #love was used over 664million times across the world on istagram.
                          3. twitter uses longitude and latitude on its post can see where people are posting from in the world.
                            1. used for the 2014 independence campaign in Scotland, could see the twitter ot spot locations. there was one in south wales!
                          4. US!
                            1. delivery estimations for purchaced goods
                              1. planning a journey
                                1. driving drectins from a GPS or google maps
                                2. available and mostly free, basic softwear
                                  1. property searches, within a distance of a. commuter train station, family, postcode.
                                3. why do we kneed it?
                                  1. To store / manage / link spatial data sets
                                    1. show information on maps in a way most can understand, takes up less room to store this kind of data than the raw data and this is understandable.
                                    2. visualise data
                                      1. make it understandable and accessable
                                      2. compare one against the other of relevant nature to see patters forming!
                                        1. use for stats and modeling
                                        2. vector or raster
                                          1. vector
                                            1. entities
                                              1. bus stops, roads and hoses things on earth
                                                1. things we put on earth
                                              2. Vector data models
                                                1. used for traffic management
                                                  1. where the bus stops are, flow of traffic
                                                  2. London underground
                                                    1. location referenced by x,y coordinates which can be linked into lines, and polygons. used to make shapes
                                                      1. referenced to a specify table due to attributes
                                                        1. data comes from
                                                          1. GPS
                                                            1. On-Screen digitilastion
                                                              1. OS maps
                                                                1. Open street map
                                                                2. used for
                                                                  1. properties lines and boundary's
                                                                    1. Political boundaries
                                                                      1. transportation
                                                                        1. London underground as an example
                                                                  2. raster
                                                                    1. feilds
                                                                      1. climate, weather, gravity, atmospheric pressure, terrain
                                                                        1. things of earth
                                                                      2. raster data model
                                                                        1. can be used to show vegetation cover
                                                                          1. represented as a value of the cell
                                                                            1. uses images, statalight, remote sensing, scanned maps or elevation data.
                                                                              1. uses
                                                                                1. elevation, temperature soil type or land use
                                                                                  1. continuous data
                                                                                    1. os mapping??
                                                                                  2. location is a grid cell, dependent on pixel size
                                                                                  3. “raster is faster but vector is corrector” - Joseph Berry
                                                                                2. Earth Oberservations
                                                                                  1. what does it offer
                                                                                    1. chance to observe the earth in ways which we otherwise either couldn't or would have spend large volumes of money, training people how to survive in extera circumstances and take scientific data
                                                                                      1. monitoring year round in a specific area
                                                                                        1. data we could otherwise never have
                                                                                          1. ice cap cover, we wold never know how much is there but due to earth observations we can and do!
                                                                                            1. shows physical demo of global climate change
                                                                                              1. difficult working conditions and size make traverse difficult
                                                                                                1. only became aware how large it as in 1970 with first Earth observation
                                                                                                  1. Can measure extent , thinkness, flow and composition from space
                                                                                                  2. % of rainforest being felled every year, spread of mon-cluture trees
                                                                                                2. remote sensing
                                                                                                  1. What is it?
                                                                                                    1. Qualitative measurements.
                                                                                                      1. earth surface properties withough physical contact
                                                                                                        1. sensing and recording relected or emitted electromagnetic energy and interpreting the the signals
                                                                                                          1. completed from aircraft or satalight immages
                                                                                                          2. Completed by satalights, drone planes or achull planes and people with a camera.
                                                                                                            1. why use it
                                                                                                              1. Ecosystems can change drmaticall over a year. due to seasons.
                                                                                                                1. Ecosystems cover a large scale
                                                                                                                  1. could never survey the whole thing, can knda with arial photography
                                                                                                                    1. Most environements are exhibit spatical complextity
                                                                                                                      1. many habitats/environemens in the one area/ habitat crossover
                                                                                                                      2. Oceanic algle blooms, easturies-brackish water, can flood . patchwork of fields-moncluture. also consider the altitude changes. across a hill. can only have moved 1km on a map bu have moved 500m in attitude, plants change as the climate does.
                                                                                                                      3. Inaccessable areas. or ares that require large volumes of training such as artic, rainforest or are dangerous such as volcaoes
                                                                                                                      4. experiencing unperceiving environmental change and we need to measure the changes and biosphere responses.
                                                                                                                      5. challanges
                                                                                                                        1. new unfamiliar science
                                                                                                                          1. highly technical, only for those who are trained to use it.
                                                                                                                            1. data is expensive to obtain as satalight missions are expensive
                                                                                                                            2. how does it work
                                                                                                                              1. optical and radar
                                                                                                                                1. optical sensors
                                                                                                                                  1. intensity change in the signal shows the image contrast and measured in data bits
                                                                                                                                  2. radar
                                                                                                                                    1. Emmit a pulse and measures the intensity of returned signal to build a picture
                                                                                                                                      1. different things send back the signal differently so they show up differently
                                                                                                                                        1. spattical resolution is rthe fiootprit size for radar
                                                                                                                                          1. spatical resolution measures the light reflected in different colour bands the number of bands is the spectral resolution
                                                                                                                                      2. how done
                                                                                                                                        1. ground sensors
                                                                                                                                          1. uses GIS &GPS
                                                                                                                                          2. tower sensors
                                                                                                                                            1. uses GIS &GPS
                                                                                                                                            2. UAV
                                                                                                                                              1. arial photos
                                                                                                                                              2. airoplane
                                                                                                                                                1. satalight
                                                                                                                                                2. Temporal resolution
                                                                                                                                                  1. Geostationary: satalights constantly image the same area of the earth at pre-set intervals, shows changes eg icecaps
                                                                                                                                                    1. polar obiting, images over the whole earth over certain pre determined time periods
                                                                                                                                                      1. frequency sesor measurments
                                                                                                                                                    2. Green-ness
                                                                                                                                                      1. Nominalised difference vegetation idex which measures the greenness of the earth
                                                                                                                                                        1. exploits different light wavelength obsorbsion by plants
                                                                                                                                                          1. seen by different reflections of green light, the more green light reflected the more healthy it is the more red the more unhealthy it is
                                                                                                                                                          1. measure penguin poo from space, estimate the number of penguins
                                                                                                                                                        2. meta data
                                                                                                                                                          1. Data about data
                                                                                                                                                            1. who captured it
                                                                                                                                                              1. when was it completed
                                                                                                                                                                1. how was it captured, Digitised on screen, GPS?
                                                                                                                                                                2. Cartography/Map design
                                                                                                                                                                  1. Use area approperatly
                                                                                                                                                                    1. big bit of sea?- stick legend in it
                                                                                                                                                                      1. have the map as big as possible
                                                                                                                                                                        1. have only required detail on it
                                                                                                                                                                        2. use obvious symbols, and definite symbols, as in blobs have each size distinuashable, should be a defineien its this one not, its one of the tree
                                                                                                                                                                          1. Quantitative or Qulitative
                                                                                                                                                                            1. Qualitative
                                                                                                                                                                              1. no ranking implied
                                                                                                                                                                                1. differ in types, should be categorised: points of interest, tree species
                                                                                                                                                                                2. Quantitative
                                                                                                                                                                                  1. logical progression
                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Low to high
                                                                                                                                                                                      1. colour or blobs can be used
                                                                                                                                                                                    2. normal person colour connenations
                                                                                                                                                                                      1. blue= water, cold, positive numbers
                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Red= warm , important items negative numbers
                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Green= Vegetation
                                                                                                                                                                                            1. OS maps
                                                                                                                                                                                            1. remember the earth is round and just because your map is 2d on a peace of paper its not really!
                                                                                                                                                                                              1. maps need a contex, one of a big bit of blue to show an ocean just dosent work!
                                                                                                                                                                                                1. oceanography maps are more than just big bits of blue, show deep and shallow water, regular-irregular currents and normal wind (trade wind) directions
                                                                                                                                                                                              2. usefull for
                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Windfams
                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. where they will be, seen from, heard from
                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. use to choose sites which minimise visual impact, habitat loss, bird strikes, carbon loss
                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. best places to be due to wind
                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. tranquillity mapping
                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. shows areas which are classes as tranquil
                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. can show the woodland which are a certin distance from roads, houses and are thefrore more likely to be quiet and tranquil places
                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. seeing natural landscape, hearing birdsng, peace and quite,stars at night, hearing natural sounds, sea, streams
                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. land use data, digital elevation, population centers, housemaps, transport routes, cables and wires, wildlife surveys. 44 factors used in model to create tranquil maps.
                                                                                                                                                                                                            2. City activity maps
                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. usefull forbig cities, show where the most traffic (cars, people) is and therefore can do things to ease congestion on specific streets or routes!

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