Big Dave
Mind Map by , created over 4 years ago

Mind Map on History, created by Big Dave on 12/19/2014.

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Big Dave
Created by Big Dave over 4 years ago
2014 GCSE History Exam Paper Setup
James McConnell
Hitler and the Nazi Party (1919-23)
Adam Collinge
The Berlin Crisis
Alina A
Key Biology Definitions/Terms
jane zulu
History
Heidi C
Germany 1918-39
Cam Burke
Germany 1918-34
evie.challis
Nazi Germany 1933-39
c7jeremy
The Rise of the Nazis
shann.w
History
1 Crime and Punishment: 1st of June
1.1 Methods of policing
1.1.1 Police force (1829)

Annotations:

  • Professional Police force employed to prevent and investigate crimes - introduced by Sir Robert Peel, Home Secretary, in 1829.
  • + Prevent as well as investigate crime + More efficient than other methods + Purpose trained
1.1.1.1 Public opion
1.1.1.1.1 Initial
1.1.1.1.1.1 Thugs in uniforms
1.1.1.1.1.2 Only exist to protect wealthy
1.1.1.1.1.3 Incompetent
1.1.1.1.2 Following Great Exhibition
1.1.1.1.2.1 Helpful
1.1.1.1.2.2 Unthreatening
1.1.1.1.2.3 Protective
1.1.2 Constables

Annotations:

  • Volunteer serving for one year, responsible for taking criminals to court but not detecting crime.
  • - Likely to be biased towards those they know - High potential for corruption as unpaid + Likely to be dedicated as volunteers
1.1.3 Watchmen

Annotations:

  • People employed to patrol areas at night or during the day and able to arrest drunks or vagrants.
  • - Often inefectual
1.1.4 Justices of the Peace

Annotations:

  • Landowners given responsibility for a 'Hundred' by the monarch. Unpaid as the position's honour was considered payment enough and it was felt to be the duty of a landowner to maintain law and order in there area.
  • - High potential for corruption as unpaid - Likely to be biased in favour of aristocracy
1.1.5 Rewards

Annotations:

  • Bounties offered for the capture of criminals.
  • - Encourages vigilantism - Often undermines the law
1.1.6 Local Militia

Annotations:

  • Part-time or professional soldiers garrisoned in a settlement.
  • - Often excessively violent - Trained for combat thus unlikely to use peaceful means to resolve situations
1.1.7 Bow Street Runners

Annotations:

  • Introduced by Magistrate Henry Fielding in 1742 and referred to as Britain's first Police force. Only attempted to investigate but not prevent crime. John Fielding introduced mounted patrols to give the Runners a street presence but they were simply too few in number to have an impact.
1.2 Bloody code
1.2.1 1723 - Waltham Black Act

Annotations:

  • Added many new capital crimes.
1.2.2 Reasons for ending
1.2.2.1 Small proportion of sentenced were executed
1.3 Prisons

Annotations:

  • - 1799 - Penitentiary Act: Silent System, one person per cell, continuous labour. - 1816 - First state prison, Millbank - 1842 - First 'Panopticon' prison built, single cell rehabilitation through work (unpicking rope), mixing with other prisoners allowed during the day. - 1877 - Prison commission set up to control all prisons. -1898 - Prison Act confirms reform as primary as primary purpose of prison, hard labour.
1.3.1 Elizabeth Fry
1.3.2 John Howard
1.3.3 Jeremy Bentham

Annotations:

  • Wanted prisons to be harsh but not undermine health. Designed the 'Panopticon' prison, built around a central circular hallway with rings radiating outwards, allowing all of the prison to be observed from one location.
1.4 Transportation
1.5 Periods
1.5.1 Celts
1.5.1.1 Passive
1.5.1.2 Decisions made by druids
1.5.1.3 No written law
1.5.2 Romans
1.5.2.1 Standardised legal system
1.5.2.2 Punishments
1.5.2.2.1 Cruxifiction

Annotations:

  • For crimes against the state/treason/
1.5.2.2.2 Exile

Annotations:

  • As a means of removing powerful enemies.
1.5.2.3 Freedom of religion

Annotations:

  • Colonies of Rome were free to worship their own gods with the condition that they must also worship the emperor.
1.5.3 Anglo-Saxons
1.5.3.1 Advanced compensation system
1.5.3.2 Trial by ordeal

Annotations:

  • Trial by hot water - reach into boiling water and grab object (?), if hand healed within time (?) then innocent. Trial by cold water - dropped into river whilst hogtied, if float then innocent. Trial by iron - 
1.5.4 Normans
1.5.4.1 Rise of church
1.5.4.1.1 Moral crimes
1.5.4.2 Harsh punishments

Annotations:

  • William I had to establish himself and assert control over England.
1.5.4.3 Forest Laws

Annotations:

  • Common land was allotted to wealthy landowners, and commoners were no longer allowed to hunt or cut wood on it.
1.5.5 20th Century
1.5.5.1 Alternative punishments

Annotations:

  • - 1907 - Probation introduced: A person on probation had to report to the police once a week and meet regularly with a probation officer. If there was no re-offending then there would be no further punishment. - 1914 - Longer to pay fines: Anyone needing to pay fines was given time to pay rather than being sent to prison. - 1962 - Birching abolished: Those who would previously have been birched were fined or sent to prison. - 1965 - Capital punishment abolished. - 1967 - Parole introduced: Prisoners no longer had to serve all of their sentence if they behaved well. - Suspended sentence introduced: If offenders did not re-offend, their sentence was waived. - 1972 - Community Service Orders introduced: Criminals were required to do a number of hours work for the community. - 1990s - Electronic tags introduced: A form of probation that consisted of the fitting of a device to an offender which allowed Police to monitor their location.
1.5.5.2 Special measures affecting juveniles

Annotations:

  • - 1900 - Borstals introduced as alternatives to prison, focusing on education and teaching of a trade. - 1933 - Age of criminal responsibility raised to eight. - 1948 - Detention centres set up to give 'short, sharp, shock' sentences. - 1963 - Age of criminal responsibility raised to ten. - 1969 - Juvenile courts, supervision and care orders introduced: Age of criminal responsibility raised to fourteeen. - 1983 - Detention centres and youth custody: These replaced borstals and prison for those under 21.
1.6 Conscientious objection

Annotations:

  • A person who refused to fight for religious or moral reasons.
1.6.1 World War One
1.6.1.1 Military Service Act (1916)
1.6.1.2 Attitudes
1.6.1.2.1 Social
1.6.1.2.1.1 Assumed to be cowards
1.6.1.2.1.2 Given white feathers
1.6.1.2.1.3 Shunned
1.6.1.2.2 Official
1.6.1.2.2.1 Truibunal

Annotations:

  • Forced to stand in front of four local dignitaries and answer questions designed to shame them into backing down.
1.6.1.2.2.2 Show trials

Annotations:

  • Used to scare soldiers and civilians into obeying orders.
1.6.2 World War Two
1.6.2.1 Attitudes
1.6.2.1.1 Social
1.6.2.1.1.1 Organisations to support objectors
1.6.2.1.1.2 Outcast from society
1.6.2.1.2 Official
1.6.2.1.2.1 Fairer tribunals
1.6.2.2 Compulsory 6 month training
1.6.2.2.1 National Service (1939)
1.6.3 Absolutists

Annotations:

  • Refuse to be in any way connected with the war effort.
1.6.4 Alternativists

Annotations:

  • Happy to partake in many roles such as trench-digging and stretcher bearing in order to aid the war effort, but refused to bear arms against another person.
1.7 Factors affecting crime
1.7.1 The economy

Annotations:

  • Economic crises result in large unemployment and poverty, which can drive people to crime. Increased affluence means that people have more possessions and wealth to steal.
1.7.2 Technology

Annotations:

  • Cars brought a whole range of new possible offences such as speeding. Internet opens the possibility of easy piracy and opportunity for theft and fraud, as well as data and malicious communications crimes. 
1.7.3 Government

Annotations:

  • Unpopular policy can result in rioting and civil disorder.
1.7.4 War

Annotations:

  • Influx of illegal/unlicensed firearms. 
1.7.5 Beliefs

Annotations:

  • Less motivation to be moral in a secular society. Moral crimes such as homosexuality legalised. Racism and religious hatred no longer tolerated and declared a crime.
1.7.6 'New' Crimes
1.7.6.1 Discrimination
1.7.6.2 Hate crimes
1.8 Poaching

Annotations:

  • Considered a right by most people and this is why the Forest Laws were so greatly opposed.
1.9 Capital Punishment
1.9.1 Cases

Annotations:

  • Either due to: - British Media Attention - The case's use as an example by either pro or against capital punishment campaigns. - The posthumous proof of the person's innocence or additional factors that should have awarded them leniency.
1.9.1.1 Derek Bentley

Annotations:

  • 19 year old mentally challenged man teamed up with 16 year old Chris Craig to rob a Croyden warehouse on the 2nd of November 1952. Police disturb them, and PC Sidney Miles is shot during the confrontation. Bentley was unarmed and being restrained but was claimed to have said "Let him have it Chris" (although there was no strong evidence for this.) - which could have meant either to hand the gun over or to open fire. Craig was too young to hang and spent 10 years in prison, but Bentley was hanged on the 13th of January 1953 despite much campaigning. Bentley was pardonned in 1998.
1.9.1.2 Ruth Ellis

Annotations:

  • Guilty of shooting lover seven times, however it was revealed after her execution that she was greatly abused and thus should have been sentenced more leniently.
1.9.1.3 Mahood Mattan
1.9.1.4 Timothy Evans
1.9.2 1967 Homocide Act

Annotations:

  • Limits capital punishment to murder of five types: - Murder in the course or furtherance of a theft - Murder by shooting or causing an explosion - Murder whilst resisting arrest or during an escape - Murder of a police or prison officer - Two or more murders committed on different occasions. 
2 Protest and Law: 16th of June
2.1 Women's Suffrage
2.1.1 Existing role of women
2.1.1.1 No job
2.1.1.2 Property of husband
2.1.1.3 Educated only in private
2.1.1.4 Interested in arts rather than sciences
2.1.1.5 Assets belong to husband
2.1.2 Obstacles
2.1.2.1 Ridicule by media
2.1.2.2 Traditional roles of women
2.1.2.3 No universal male suffrage
2.1.2.4 Possible impact of new voters
2.1.2.5 Counterproductive methods
2.1.3 Suffragists

Annotations:

  • National Union of Women's Suffrage Societies formed in 1897 by Milicent Fawcett. Believed in peaceful protest such as writing letters and petitions.
2.1.3.1 Suffragettes

Annotations:

  • Emmeline Pankhurst and her daughters Christabel and Sylvia set up the Women's Social and Political Union after the Suffragist movement was not taken seriously. Their motto was 'Deeds not words'
2.1.3.1.1 Methods
2.1.3.1.1.1 Marches and demonstrations

Annotations:

  • In 1908, the WSPU organised a march of 300,000 sympathisers.
2.1.3.1.1.2 Attacks on property

Annotations:

  • Mary Richardson attacked a valuable Velaquez painting in the National Portrait Gallery with an axe.
2.1.3.1.1.3 Hunger strikes

Annotations:

  • When the government refused to recognise incarcerated Suffragettes as political prisoners, many went on hunger strike and had to be force fed watery gruel through a tube. This created massive bad publicity for the government.
2.1.3.1.1.4 Propaganda

Annotations:

  • Letters were given out and the 'Votes for Women' newspaper was established to spread the Suffragette message.
2.1.3.1.1.5 Civil Disobedience

Annotations:

  • WSPU members chained themselves to public railings and demonstrated outside the Houses of Parliament. Some MPs (including Churchill) were attacked, walls were graffitied and windows were broken.
2.1.3.1.1.6 Meetings and conferences

Annotations:

  • In 1908, 7000 women met in the Albert Hall for a meeting at the invitation of sympathetic MPs.
2.1.3.1.1.7 'Self-Denial Week'

Annotations:

  • Between the 15th and 22nd of February 1908, 'Self-Denial Week' was held to raise funds for the cause. WSPU members avoided sugar, cocoa and other luxuries during this period.
2.1.3.1.2 Government responses
2.1.3.1.2.1 1913 'Cat & Mouse Act'

Annotations:

  • Allowed the authorities to release a hunger-striker before they became seriously ill and re-arrest them once they regained strength to complete their sentence. This act somewhat reduced the effectiveness of hunger-striking but was seen as unfair by many.
2.1.3.1.2.2 Women banned from Liberal meetings

Annotations:

  • After incidents of heckling and other protest during Liberal meetings, all women were banned, closing  a valuable route of peaceful protest.
2.1.3.1.2.3 Police intstruction

Annotations:

  • Police were instructed to frighten and humiliate Suffragettes during marches such as the 18th of November 1910 'Black Friday' march on Parliament, clearly showing Government bias against the movement. There were many instances of physical and sexual abuse by Police on protesters.
2.2 General Strike (1927)
2.2.1 Obstacles
2.2.1.1 Failure of 1921 strike

Annotations:

  • 1921 Miner's Strike failed due to lack of support from other unions.
2.2.1.2 Fear of depression

Annotations:

  • As coal prices plummeted, many feared that Britain was heading into a depression.
2.2.1.3 Suspicions of Communism

Annotations:

  • Trade Unions were suspected by government of supporting Socialism and Communism.
2.2.1.4 Deception by government

Annotations:

  • Miners thought that the government was on their side, but subsidies were just a delaying tactic to give time to prepare against the strikers.
2.2.1.5 Propaganda

Annotations:

  • Winston Churchill used propaganda such as the National Gazette to accuse strikers of plotting revolution. Many people were frightened of being associated with Communism and so much support for the strikers diminshed.
2.2.1.6 Lack of support from other unions

Annotations:

  • Miners might not get support from other workers whose jobs had not been protected during the war.
2.2.1.7 Negative media attention

Annotations:

  • The media reflected the view of other classes who were fearful of working class militancy and the prospect of a revolution.
2.2.2 Trade Unionists
2.2.2.1 A.J. Cook

Annotations:

  • Leader of the miner's and prominent figure during the strike. Associated with slogan "Not a penny off the pay, not a minute off the day."
2.2.2.2 Ernest Bevin
2.2.2.3 Johnny Thomas
2.2.2.4 Stanley Baldwin
2.2.2.5 Sir Herbert Samuel
2.2.2.6 Ramsay MacDonald
2.2.3 Reasons for failure
2.2.3.1 Accusations of Communism

Annotations:

  • The leader of the TUC was a Labour MP, thus when the standing government accused the strikers of planning a Communist revolution, the party was desperate to distance itself from any Communist leanings. This likely had an impact on the decision to call off the thus far successful strike after only nine days, resulting in its failure
2.2.4 Samuel Commission

Annotations:

  • Set up by Sir Herbert Samuel to look into the miner's demands but essentially was created to stall for time to prepare for the strike.
2.3 Miners' Strike (1984)

Annotations:

  • National Union of Miners (NUM) led by Arthur Scargill called a strike 6th of March 1984 when newly appointed head of the National Coal Board (NCP) Ian McGregor announced the closure of 20 mines and the subsequent loss of 20,000 jobs. The strike lasted for one year. 
2.3.1 Causes
2.3.1.1 Mine closures
2.3.1.1.1 Mines were uneconomical
2.3.2 Miners' tactics
2.3.2.1 Picketing

Annotations:

  • Groups of miners were deployed outside mines to protest and prevent other miners from going to work.
2.3.2.2 Flying Pickets

Annotations:

  • Groups of miners were transported from their closed pits to working pits, where they would protest and try to prevent the pits from functioning, such as the Nottinghamshire mines that did not close due to strike action and were heavily picketed by striking miners. Flying Pickets would also blockade power stations to prevent the delivery of coal. 
2.3.2.3 Calling a national strike

Annotations:

  • This was much harder for the government to deal with as the strike was happening on a large scale over many areas. This also caused problems for the NUM as many miners were reluctant to strike: - not all miners were at risk of losing their jobs, as in the case of Nottinghamshire miners, the government was able to split the miners by promising the maintenance of some mines, thus the workers in these mines would be reluctant to strike - a national ballot had not been held before the strike, making it illegal under the government's new laws, and many miners were unhappy as they had not been consulted before the strike
2.3.2.3.1 Not waiting for a ballot

Annotations:

  • The strike was able to go ahead without delay or interruption, as with previous strikes some miners had voted not to strike and this caused disruption. Despite this, not waiting for the ballot made the strike illegal and caused disagreements.
2.3.2.4 Favourable media attention

Annotations:

  • The miners used the media to present police intimidation and brutality and thus gain support. 
2.3.2.5 Community spirit

Annotations:

  • The pride and solidarity of mining communities allowed the strikers to keep going despite pressures such as financial hardship.
2.3.2.6 Selective support

Annotations:

  • The NUM only gave financial support to striking miners who took part in pickets, putting pressure on strikers to join in the protests as well as just striking.
2.3.2.7 Putting pressure on people to strike

Annotations:

  • Miners who did not strike were called 'scabs' and were ostracised in many mining communities. Scabs were often intimidated or assaulted if they refused to join in the strike.
2.3.2.8 Propaganda

Annotations:

  • The miners distributed leaflets and newspapers to spread their cause. The strike received a lot of support from popular culture.
2.3.3 Government tactics
2.3.3.1 Deployment of riot police & mounted police
2.3.3.2 Transporting in city police

Annotations:

  • Government brought in large numbers of city police on buses to bolster the police ranks and maintain order. Crucially, city police were used as local officers may know some of the miners or sympathise with them.
2.3.3.3 New laws

Annotations:

  • The government passed several new laws that restricted trade union rights and powers. This allowed the government to impose fines and seize assets belonging to the NUM up to a value of £5 million after the strike was declared illegal, having been called without a national ballot. The government refused to pay benefits to 'illegal' strikers which forced many into poverty, and the strike was condemned as going against British democracy.
2.3.3.4 Preparation

Annotations:

  • The government stockpiled coal, converted some power stations to burn oil and recruited heavy hauliers to transport materials in case railway workers went on strike. These steps ensured that power stations were able to continue operating throughout the strike and its impact was somewhat lessened.
2.3.3.5 Use of the media

Annotations:

  • The government fed the media rumours and allegations that the NUM was corrupt and had received donations from the soviet union, in order to damage the strike's popular support. The government's media appearances stressed that the picketers used violence and intimidation to force others to strike.
2.3.3.6 Divide & conquer

Annotations:

  • The government created rifts between groups of miners by promising to protect the jobs of some but not others, causing many to not have the incentive to strike and others to resent them for not wanting to, as was the case with the Nottinghamshire mines. Many miners were unhappy as there had been no national ballot prior to the calling of the strike, and some miners' unions provided the government with information about the NUM's plans. 
2.4 Poll Tax Riots (1992)
2.4.1 Causes
2.4.1.1 Community Charge

Annotations:

  • Margaret Thatcher pushed forward this policy in 1988 (she had been planning it since 1970) to pay for local services. This policy abolished the existing 'Rating' system that required the homeowner to pay a tax decided by the value of their property with a new 'Community Charge'. This act required every person in the UK to pay a fixed charge decided by their local councils and used to pay for services not subsidised by the government, regardless of their wealth or income.  The 'Poll Tax' was immensely unpopular as it required those in poverty to pay the same as those with great wealth, and the majority of people suffered as a result of it. Landlords were able to exploit the new system for profit by not reducing rents that were designed to factor in the landlord's rates. Large families on the poverty line were hit the hardest as the new Community Charge forced all adults living in a home to pay individually.
2.4.1.1.1 Reasons

Annotations:

  • Thatcher described this policy as the "flagship of the Thatcher fleet", making it clear that this was of great personal importance to her and perhaps a matter of pride rather than strictly for the national benefit. Environment secretary Nicholas Ridley said:   "Why should a duke pay more than a dustman? It is only because we have been subjected to socialist ideas for the last 50 years that people think this is fair." This clearly shows that much of the motivation was attempting to create a fairer situation, from the point of view of a typically wealthier and higher status party that was perhaps out of touch with the reality of working people in Britain.
2.4.1.1.2 Criticisms

Annotations:

  • Millions of people could not afford to pay the new tax, and many people felt that it was being set by wealthy people in the south of England with little concern for other parts of the UK. 38 million people would have to pay Poll Tax, as opposed to the 14 million who already paid rates. There was widespread opposition as it was estimated that 70% of people would be worse off.
2.4.1.1.3 Defences

Annotations:

  • Thatcher claimed that: The government has recognised that some charges were too high and would be subsidising some councils to act as a 'safety net' and help people to pay. It is only in Labour, 'Socialist' areas that taxes are too high, and people are suffering because of Labour overspending. Scotland is more well looked after financially than other parts of the UK.
2.4.1.2 Politicalisation of tax

Annotations:

  • The Conservative government used the Poll Tax for political gain by more greatly subsidising sympathetic areas, as this would mean that services ran better and the Community Charge could be reduced resulting in a happier local population - thus causing dissatisfaction amongst Labour voters and giving the impression that Conservatives were more efficient.
2.4.2 Protesters' methods
2.4.2.1 Peaceful protest

Annotations:

  • Labour and Trade Unions supported peaceful marches and campaigns, involving the printing of leaflets and writing of letters to express dissatisfaction with the new tax.
2.4.2.2 Scottish resistance

Annotations:

  • The tax was first trialled in Scotland, where formal groups were formed to organise marches.
2.4.2.3 Non-registration

Annotations:

  • People refused to register for the tax and ignored fines set for this.
2.4.2.4 Non-payment

Annotations:

  • People refused to pay the tax and formed organised groups to aid each other and defend those taken to court. - Sept 1989: 15% of Scots not paying - April 1990: 1 million people had not paid - April 1990: Poll Tax implemented in England - July 1990: 14 million non-payers across the UK, with the borough of Haringey refusing to implement the tax and being home to 97,000 non-payers - Jan 1991: 18% of people in rural areas, 27% in urban areas and 35% in Greater London refused to pay - Jan 1991: 35% of people in Scotland refused to pay - March 1991: 18 million people refused to pay When the tax was abolished by John Major, non-payment rose to 50% in Greater London - at which point £2.5 billion had not been paid.
2.4.2.5 Non-implementation

Annotations:

  • People called on councils to refuse to implement the tax.
2.4.2.6 Non-collection

Annotations:

  • Union members who were responsible for collecting Poll Tax were urged to refuse to do so.
2.4.2.7 Anti-Poll Tax Unions

Annotations:

  • APTUs were set up in local areas to aid resistance, with the belief that 18 million people could not be arrested and greater numbers would boost the effectiveness of the protest. These unions were not supported by Labour and the Trade Unions, as they encouraged illegal activity, chiefly the non-payment of Poll Tax. APTUs arranged meetings to educate and assist people in avoiding paying their tax, as well as providing information on how to prevent seizure of their property by bailiffs to pay for their tax. Information posters and leaflets were spread across local areas and help was provided to all those who needed it regards to legal and social issues of refusing to pay.
2.4.3 Trafalgar Square

Annotations:

  • On the 31st of March 1990, APTUs organised a protest in London intended to be a peaceful march of around 20,000 people to Trafalgar Square. The numbers of protesters were roughly 10x those expected, with roughly 3,000 protesters turning violently on the police, and when Police were pelted with debris in Trafalgar Square the event descended into a large scale battle and riot. The Police used riot and mounted divisions to try and control the protesters, but their methods were heavy-handed and many people (including bystanders) were injured. Police officers were also harmed by thrown objects, and large numbers of looters took the opportunity to smash windows of shops and restaurants in order to steal things. 491 charged with violent protest. 113 injured, 45 of whom were Police.
2.4.3.1 Police response

Annotations:

  • The Police's response was heavy handed, violent and poorly managed. Following the protest, the Police blamed the poor quality of their response on squeezed budgets, poor quality radio communications, and a severe lack of officers and riot equipment.
2.4.4 Fall of Thatcher

Annotations:

  • As Thatcher entered her third term, she had noticeably aged and declined in her political ability. Positive character traits such as confidence and strength developed into disregard for anyone else's opinion and overconfidence in her own power. Thatcher's sense of judgement was not what it used to be, and she turned her cabinet and party against her by thinking that she could do everything herself and that she didn't need Conservative support.  Thatcher's choice to implement her personal policy of the Poll Tax despite lack of party support exemplifies how she became too absorbed in her own personality cult and believed that decisions were ultimately up to what she wanted them to be. The Poll Tax was pretty much unanimously despised by everyone and immensely damaging to the Conservative Party's chances of re-election (as all members were assumed to be in support of the hated policy). In order to save itself from losing mass support, the Tories jettisoned Thatcher in order to distance themselves from her personal policy and limit the damage to their own campaigns. Thatcher never saw it coming, which is indicative of how headstrong and unaware she had become. "The Poll Tax is the flagship of the Thatcher fleet." - This personalisation of the policy shows where Thatcher went wrong, and also how her party were able to pile as much blame onto her as possible.
3 Germany: 10th of June
3.1 Weimar Republic
3.1.1 Constitution
3.1.1.1 Reichstag
3.1.1.1.1 Proportional representation

Annotations:

  • Ultimately fair, but made it impossible for a majority government to be formed. Fringe parties were also given an influence.
3.1.1.2 President

Annotations:

  • Head of State, elected by the people.
3.1.1.2.1 Chancellor

Annotations:

  • Appointed by the President as head of the Reichstag.
3.1.1.3 Article 48

Annotations:

  • A law allowing the president to pass laws without putting them to vote in the Reichstag in emergencies.
3.1.2 Treaty of Versailles

Annotations:

  • Imposed after the First World War and implemented a number of sanctions on Germany designed to repair the damage of the war and prevent such an occurrence from happening again. 
3.1.2.1 Reparations

Annotations:

  • Far too much to ever realistically be repaid.
3.1.2.2 Military restrictions

Annotations:

  • Limited to 100,000 soldiers, XX ships and no submarines.
3.1.2.3 War Guilt Clause

Annotations:

  • Forced Germany to accept responsibility for directly causing the First World War.
3.1.3 'Stab in the back' theory

Annotations:

  • Many German people believed that the army was not in fact in a position of defeat, but instead had been betrayed by politicians known as the 'November Criminals' who sold Germany into surrender.
3.1.4 Political unrest
3.1.4.1 Spartacists

Annotations:

  • Communist revolutionaries lead by Rosa Luxenburg and Karl Leibknecht. On the 4th of Janurary 1919, Spartacists seized and held a newspaper office until the 15th of January, when President Ebert ordered the Freikorps to attack them.
3.1.4.2 Freikorps

Annotations:

  • Fascist para-military 'Free-corps' group that seized German weaponry and vehicles left behind after the country's surrender. Weimar government often used them to maintain order in times of crisis.
3.1.4.3 Munich/Beer Hall Putsch

Annotations:

  • Attempted coup on 8-9 November 1923 led by Adolf Hitler and Erich Ludendorff. Coup began in Nazi Party head-quaters, a beer hall in Munich, and consisted of around 2000 men marching on Berlin. The army was able to fight off the Nazis, with 16 members and 4 policemen being killed in the conflict. Hitler was sentenced to 5 years in Landsberg Fortress for treason, during which time he dictated 'Mein Kampf' to Rudolf Hess. Hitler used the trial as an opportunity to present his views and propaganda to the nation and many people involved were sympathetic. Following his release Hitler decided to aim for power through legitimate means.
3.1.4.4 Kapp Putsch

Annotations:

  • Attempted coup in March 1920 led by Wolfgang Kapp. The coup was successful in forcing the government to leave Berlin but ultimately collapsed when a general strike was issued and the country ground to a halt.
3.1.5 Economic issues
3.1.5.1 Hyperinflation

Annotations:

  • Government printed more money to help pay off loans but in the process devalued the currency to the point that it was close to worthless. 
3.1.5.2 Invasion of the Ruhr

Annotations:

  • In 1923, France and Belgium invaded the Ruhr region of Germany with the intention of taking resources as a substitute for the unpaid reparations. The Weimar government organised mass strikes and passive resistance, but this severely harmed the German economy before France and Belgium finally withdrew.
3.1.5.3
3.1.6 Gustav Stresemann

Annotations:

  • Died in 1929
3.1.6.1 Chancellor

Annotations:

  • 1923
3.1.6.1.1 Ended Hyperinflation

Annotations:

  • New currency: Rentonmark.
3.1.6.1.2 Ended Ruhr resistance
3.1.6.2 Foreign Minister

Annotations:

  • 1923-1929
3.1.6.2.1 Dawes plan

Annotations:

  • Meant only as an interim measure, but was successful from 1924 up until the Wall Street Crash of 1929. - The Ruhr area was to be evacuated by Allied occupation troops - Reparation payments would begin at one billion marks the first year, increasing annually to two and a half billion marks after five years- The Reichsbank would be re-organized under Allied supervision- The sources for the reparation money would include transportation, excise, and customs taxes- Germany would be loaned 800 Million Marks from the USA
3.1.6.2.1.1 Young plan

Annotations:

  • The final plan was a generous attempt to support German through her financial pain. The Young Plan further reduced reparations to 112 billion Gold Marks – then equal to about $8 billion. The money was set to be paid over 59 years with the equivalent of $473 million paid each year. Another aspect of the Young Plan designed to support Germany was the actual requirement of repayment per year. Germany had to pay a third of the sum required each year as part of a mandatory agreement – about $157 million. However, the other two-thirds only had to be paid if Germany could afford to do so in a manner that would not harm her economic development.   Formally accepted in January 1930, but collapsed as a result of the Wall Street Crash which had just occurred.
3.1.6.2.1.1.1 Wall Street Crash

Annotations:

  • Happened in 1929 after the drawing up but before the formal acceptance of the Young Plan. In short: too many Americans invested too much money and took out loans to do so. When shares decreased in value everyone wanted their money back and banks went bankrupt. The US recalled all foreign loans which crippled the rest of the world.
3.1.7 Hitler's rise
3.1.7.1 Nazi Germany
3.1.7.1.1 Terror State
3.1.7.1.1.1 People too afraid to rebel
3.1.7.1.1.2 Opposition
3.1.7.1.1.2.1 Edelweiss Pirates
3.1.7.1.1.2.2 White Rose
3.1.7.1.1.2.3 Jazz/Swing groups
3.1.7.1.2 Propaganda
3.1.7.1.2.1 Convinced people war was being won
3.1.7.1.2.2 Hid many likely unpopular policies

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