PSYA3- Biological Rhythms & Sleep (AO1)

Tayyaba Husain
Mind Map by Tayyaba Husain, updated more than 1 year ago
Tayyaba Husain
Created by Tayyaba Husain about 5 years ago


A level Psychology (Biological Rhythms and Sleep) Mind Map on PSYA3- Biological Rhythms & Sleep (AO1), created by Tayyaba Husain on 12/30/2014.

Resource summary

PSYA3- Biological Rhythms & Sleep (AO1)
1 Ultradian Rhythm
1.1 Spans less than a day and occurs more than once a day e.g. sleep stages, eating
1.1.1 Sleep Stages: 90 min cycle 1) Lasts approx 15 mins. Reduced light ^ melatonin - inhibits wakefulness. EEG measurements indicate relaxations, reduced heart rate. 2) Lasts approx 20 mins. First point- truly sound asleep. EEG measurements indicate larger slower brain waves. 3) Lasts 15 mins. EEG activity is characterised by long slow- delta waves with sleep spindles. 4) Lasts 30 mins approx. Slow - wave sleep- long slow waves of EEG. The EOG & EMG show very little activity. 5) Lasts approx 10 mins- first cycle -builds up to an hour by 4th/5th cycle. EEG activity is characterised by beta waves- relaxed waking state linked to dreaming.
2 Circadian Rhythm
2.1 Lasts about 24 hours e.g. Sleep wake cycle, Body temp
2.2 1) Humans and mammals have an endogenous pacemakers - internal biological - suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) -lies in the hypothalamus -lies above optic nerve.
2.2.1 2) SCN sends signals to pineal gland-increase production melatonin at night- Melatonin induces sleep inhibiting brain mechanisms that promote wakefulness
3 Infradian Rhythm
3.1 Occurs for a period more than one day but less than one year e.g. Female Menstrual Cycle- lasts approx 28 days
3.1.1 Female Menstrual Cycle (AO1) Driven by fluctuating hormone levels. Research suggests - pituitary gland releases hormones which stimulate follicle in 1 ovary to ripen egg- release oestrogen
3.1.2 SAD (AO1) Infradian rhythms do not have to monthly- can occur once a yr. SAD can occur e.g. during winter months and people recover in the summer. Research shows- melatonin secreted -pineal gland = dark ; more darkness - the more melatonin. Research also shown- melatonin related to chronic depression. But SAD may be due- disruption to circadian rhythm e.g. go to bed earlier wake up later in dark
4 Circannual Rhythm
4.1 Occurs or fluctuates at intervals of approx one year e.g. Migration of birds
5 What controls Biological Rhythms?
5.1 Endogenous Pacemakers- Regulate your rhythms inside your body
5.2 Exogenous Zeitgebers- Regulate your behaviour outside your body
6 Disruption of biological rhythms
6.1 Shift Work
6.1.1 - Decreased alertness - sleep deprivation - effects on health
6.2 Jet Lag
6.2.1 Erroneous decision making - hard to make decisions due to jet lag.
6.2.2 Less difficulty - travelling east to west (phase delay)
6.2.3 More difficulty to adjust West to East (Phase Advance)
6.3 Real life applications: IDA
6.3.1 Chernobyl, Exxon Valdez oil tanker grounding, space shuttle challenger
7 Lifespan changes in sleep
8 Functions of sleep
9 Sleep Disorders
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