Peel and the Conservative Party, c.1830-1850

Jasmine Latimore
Mind Map by Jasmine Latimore, updated more than 1 year ago
Jasmine Latimore
Created by Jasmine Latimore over 5 years ago
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Mind Map on Peel and the Conservative Party, c.1830-1850, created by Jasmine Latimore on 01/04/2015.
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Peel and the Conservative Party, c.1830-1850
1 Background: The 'Liberal Tory' tradition, c.1812-1830:
1.1 This was a retrenchment rather than reform, was focused upon fixing issues rather than a set of beliefs (evidence for this was Catholic emancipation) and it was consentual not partisain
1.2 There was an evolution on tariff and agricultural protection
2 After Reform: Remaking the Conservative Party, c 1832-1841
2.1 Liberal Toryism wast enough to stop the parliamentary reform, as there were much more Whigs (in 1832)
2.2 Named: Opponents of reform call themselves 'Tory' from 1831, however by the mid 1830s, they were 'conservative'
2.3 Organised: Carlton Club (1832), there was a strong leadership and Peel threatened to resin, however there was national electioneering at the 1834 Tamworth Manifesto
2.4 Moderate: 'Liberal Conservative' rather than 'Ultra Tory', there was focus upon agricultural, Anglican and properties interests
2.5 Revived: in 1835 conservative MPs were not the majority, the liberals and others were, however the Tories won 85% of English country seats
3 National Crisis and the 'Condition of England Question': Britain in 1841
3.1 Chartism petition included 1/3rd of Britain's adult population, and was 3.5 times the size of the electorate
3.2 There was a war with China and Afghanistan and dispute with US, the Anti-Corn Law League (1839) and O'Connell revived agitation for repeal of the Union.
3.3 There was an unstable population that was increasing by 15% each decade, an economic depression (1837-42), financial crisis, and an insolvent government, where Whigs abolished the House tax and increased gov budget deficit
4 1842: The Great Budget:
4.1 There was a new source of revenue, the income tax (Not an easy or new solution) but it raised revenue substantially, levied on the rich and allowed for tariff reform (which was further reduced in 1845), which still left a budget surplus
5 Rethinking the Corn Laws
5.1 They were socially divisive (aristocratic and agricultural) and inefficient (misallocation of capital) as well as immoral (as free trade would cause peace)
5.2 Those who supported conservatives believed they provided balance b/w economic sectors and the agriculture was less prone to fluctuations, and sustained the domestic demand
5.3 The protectionist political party was a central conservative belief in the 1830s
5.4 Conservative leadership wanted to reduce the corn law, the anti-corn law league was strong by 1845
5.5 The great famine allowed peel a pretext to abolish the corn law, however it wasn't the sole reason
5.6 Grassroots conservatives were betrayed and corn law was gradually phased out with the approval of the liberals
6 The Other Repeal Movement: Irish Seperatism:
6.1 1841: O'Connel revived reppeal movement of the Unions, with mass public meetings, (including Aug 1843 Tara meeting with over 1 million attendees
6.2 Peel was sumpathetic and wanted to detatch catholic church and Irish middle class from nationalism
6.3 Solution: Catholic education was improved by increasing 'Maynooth Grant'
6.4 Maynooth Grant: 1845, very controversial as it allowed growth of anti-catholicism since percieved failed cathlic emancipation (thought to quell seperatism), there was growing dissent and evangelicalism (Chapels Act of 1844). Maynooth was greatly opposed by conservative party and failed in Ireland
7 Conclusion: The Consequences of Repeal and Maynooth
7.1 Consistent with Peel's liberal tory principles developed during the 1820s, however there was a new type of conservatism emerging not consistent with the old type, causing split party, and free-traders joining the liberals.
7.2 Economic consequences: they were questionable, as USA and Germany overtook Britain in the 1870s
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