Chapter 13 - Barriers to Participation

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Mind Map on Chapter 13 - Barriers to Participation, created by woolly_13 on 01/06/2015.

Resource summary

Chapter 13 - Barriers to Participation
1 Terminology
1.1 Discrimination - "Unfair Treatment of a person, racial group, minority; action based on prejudice"
1.2 Inclusive Sport - " Where all people have the right to equal opportunities according to their particular needs"
1.3 Prejudice - " To form an unfavourable opinion before meeting an individual, often based on inadequate facts"
1.4 Social Exclusion - "When certain sections of society are left out of the mainstream"
1.5 Stereotyping - "a set of simplistic generalisations about a group that allow others to categorise them and treat them accordingly"
2 The performance Pyramid
2.1 Excellence
2.1.1 Performance Participation Foundation
3 Sport and Mass Participation
3.1 Target groups:
3.1.1 Young People (16-24)
3.1.2 Lower social classes
3.1.3 Women
3.1.4 Ethnic Minorities
3.1.5 Disabled People
3.1.6 The Elderly
3.2 Factors Limiting Participation
3.2.1 Opportunity - attitudes of friends, time and money
3.2.2 Provision - transport, equipment and facilities
3.2.3 Esteem - levels of self-confidence, perceptions of others, discrimination
4 Under-representation of women in sport
4.1 Explanations:
4.1.1 Less Media coveage
4.1.2 Lack of time and money
4.1.3 School PE programmes
4.1.4 Fewer sponsorship opportunities
4.1.5 Stereotypical myths
4.1.6 Fewer role models
4.1.7 Fewer female coaches and officials
4.2 Solutions:
4.2.1 Greater social acceptance
4.2.2 More media coverage
4.2.3 Refutation of stereotypical myths
4.2.4 More women are qualifying as coaches
4.2.5 More clubs for women to join and more competitions
4.2.6 Childcare is provided at some leisure centres
4.2.7 The Women's Sport Foundation Sport improves body image and self-esteem Reduces stress and depression Develops skills necessary for success in the workplace Lowers risk of obesity Increases the chance of academic success Increases the overall quality of life
4.3 Why Inside?
4.3.1 Comfortable environment
4.3.2 Seen as good for health
4.3.3 Non-contact activities
4.3.4 More socially acceptable
4.4 Sociocultural factors:
4.4.1 Equal opportunities
4.4.2 Increased media coverage
4.4.3 More female role models
4.4.4 More opportunities to play football
4.4.5 More clubs to join
4.4.6 Rejection of stereotypes
4.4.7 More leisure time
5 Race and Religion in Sport
5.1 Causes:
5.1.1 Conflict with religious observances
5.1.2 Higher value placed on education
5.1.3 Racist abuse
5.1.4 Fewer role models
5.1.5 Lower self-esteem and fear of rejection
5.2 Solutions:
5.2.1 Training more ethnic minority teachers and coaches
5.2.2 Single-sex provision for Muslim women
5.2.3 Punishing racist abuse
5.2.4 Organising campaigns against racism
5.2.5 Making more provision in PE
6 Under-representation of the disabled in sport
6.1 Reasons why disabled people do not participate in physical activity;
6.1.1 Negative self-image
6.1.2 Lower income levels
6.1.3 Lack of appropriate transport
6.1.4 Lack of specialist coaches
6.1.5 Lack of specialist equipment
6.1.6 Fewer competitive opportunities
6.1.7 Low levels of media coverage
6.2 Inclusiveness - "The idea that all people should have their needs, abilities and aspirations recognised"
6.3 Integration - "Able-bodied and disabled people taking part in the same activity at the same time"
6.4 Segregation - "People with disabilities participating separately amongst themselves"
6.5 Disability Sport England Functions:
6.5.1 Promotion of the benefits of exericse
6.5.2 Supporting relevant organisations
6.5.3 Increasing awareness and knowledge in society
6.5.4 Encouraging disabled people to play an active role in sport
6.5.5 Enhancing the image of sport
7 Effects of social class
7.1 Upper Class - polo, equestrian and field sports
7.2 Middle Class - hockey, tennis, golf and rugby union
7.3 Working Class - football, darts, snooker and rugby league
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