Geography - Population

Grace Evans
Mind Map by , created over 4 years ago

Note: Not complete

247
20
0
Grace Evans
Created by Grace Evans over 4 years ago
Economic migrates in the EU (Poland to UK migration)
a a
One child policy, China- Population Control Case Study
a a
Kenya- Tropical Mass Tourism Case Study
a a
An Inspector Calls: Mrs Sybil Birling
Rattan Bhorjee
AQA Additional Science B2.2 Tissues , Organs & Organ System Flashcards
Ilyass Jalloh
Favela Bairro Project- Squatter Settlement case study Changing urban environments
a a
Tourism 1
Scott Church
Thailand population control case study
jessmitchell
GCSE Geography - Fold Mountains - the Alps
Beth Coiley
Changing Urban Environments
Abby Whitmore
Geography - Population
1 Population - The number of people living in an area

Attachments:

2 Population Growth
2.1 Demographic Transition Model
2.2 Population Pyramids
2.2.1 Narrow top - lower life expectancy Wide base - High birth rate
2.2.2 Wide top - High life expectancy Base quite wide - Reasonably high birth rate
2.2.3 Wide top - High life expectancy Narrow base - Low birth rate
2.2.4 Narrow top - Low life expectancy Wide base - High birth rate Concave shape - High death rate
2.2.5 DTM stage 1/2 DTM stage 3 DTM stage 4 DTM stage 5
2.3 Rapid Population Growth
2.3.1 Managing Rapid Population Growth
2.3.1.1 Birth Control Policy - China

Attachments:

2.3.1.2 Development-Lead Approach - Kerala

Attachments:

2.3.2 Problems
2.3.2.1 Government has to bring in policies to bring population growth under control
2.3.2.2 There aren't enough jobs
2.3.2.3 Too many people can lead to resourse shortages
2.3.2.4 There aren't enough houses, this can lead to people living in overcrowded settlements
2.3.2.5 More poverty as people are born into families that are already very poor
2.3.2.6 Healthcare and education cant cope so not everyone gets access.
2.3.2.7 Most of the population is young so the government focuses on issues important to them and neglect the issues effecting the elderly
2.3.2.8 Children have to work to support families
2.3.3 Sustainable Population
2.3.3.1 A population whose growth and developmet does not threaten the success of future generations
2.3.3.2 Replacement rate = 2.1 Fertility Rate
2.4 World Population Growth
2.4.1 Graph
2.5 Factors Affecting Population Growth
2.5.1 Emancipation and Status of Women
2.5.1.1 Women strive for equality which demands a large time commitment
2.5.1.2 Development means opportunities for women increase. A larger workforce is required and so more women are needed in the workforce
2.5.1.2.1 Also for a good standard of living a household needs two incomes
2.5.1.2.2 Decisions are made to have children later and to have fewer children as career progression becomes more important
2.5.1.2.2.1 Also childcare can be very expensive
2.5.2 Agricultural Changes
2.5.2.1 Technology improvements improve crop yield and reduce labour
2.5.2.1.1 As less farm workers are needed, more workers are available for industry which allows rapid economic growth
2.5.2.2 Occurs quite early in a country's development
2.5.3 Education
2.5.3.1 In poorer countries education is seen as the key to improving standards of living.
2.5.3.1.1 Therefore parents have less children so they can spend more on each one to improve education
2.5.3.1.1.1 As levels of education improve, children become an economic disadvantage
2.5.4 Urbanisation
2.5.4.1 People move to cities in search of a better life. Fewer children are therefore needed to support families
3 Population Movement
3.1 Migration
3.1.1 The Windrush Programm
3.1.1.1 After WW2 there was a shortage of workers. So in the 1950's the UK encouraged immigration from the Caribbean, which is part of the Commonwealth. Many people got jobs in factories in big cities.
3.1.1.1.1 Pull Factors
3.1.1.1.1.1 Free helthcare
3.1.1.1.1.2 Free education
3.1.1.1.1.3 Job oppertunities
3.1.1.1.2 Push Factors
3.1.1.1.2.1 Not enough jobs
3.1.1.1.2.2 Not a good quality of education
3.1.2 The movement of people from one permanent place to another with the intention of staying at least on year
3.1.3 Reasons for migration
3.1.3.1 Forced
3.1.3.1.1 Pull

Annotations:

  • Stable political climate Reliable food supplies Reliable clean water supplies
3.1.3.1.2 Push

Annotations:

  • Risk of natural disasters Fear of life due to political/religious beliefs Poor human rights record Unstable political climate War and conflict
3.1.3.2 Voluntary
3.1.3.2.1 Pull

Annotations:

  • Low tax rates Higher rates of pay Well connected transport systems Modern lifestyle with higher quality of life  Schools, hospitals and other services Work in factory, offices, shops Reliable clean water and food supplies
3.1.3.2.2 Push

Annotations:

  • High tax rate Poor pay and working conditions Old and traditional way of life Land shortages causing food shortages Lack of services Remote with poor transport Shortage of clean water Poverty  
3.1.4 Africa to EU Migration
3.1.5 Eastern Europe to UK Migration
4 Ageing Population
4.1 UK Aging Population Key Facts
4.1.1 In 2007 for the first time the number of over 65's out numbered the amount of under 16's
4.1.2 By 2030 61% of the population will be over 65
4.1.3 2.8 workers will be supporting 1 pensioner
4.2 Reasons the UK has an ageing population
4.2.1 Services for the elderly eg. Meals on Wheels
4.2.2 More money from pension schemes improve quality of life
4.2.3 Life expectancy has increased
4.2.3.1 People have less strenuous jobs
4.2.4 Falling birth rates
4.2.4.1 Women putting careers first
4.2.4.2 Improved pensions so you don't need children to support you
4.2.4.3 People are marrying later
4.2.5 Free healthcare on the NHS
4.2.5.1 Improved health care schemes specially for the elderly
4.3 Impacts
4.3.1 Positives
4.3.1.1 Provides childcare
4.3.1.1.1 This gives parents more disposible income
4.3.1.2 Provides historical knowledge on past events
4.3.1.2.1 This gives younger people knowledge and teaches them life lessons
4.3.1.3 Good role models for children
4.3.1.3.1 This gives young people something to aspire to
4.3.1.4 Go into care homes
4.3.1.4.1 This creates careers in caring and nursing
4.3.1.5 Retied people have more free time
4.3.1.5.1 Many elderly use this time to do voluntary work
4.3.1.5.2 They also spend a lot of money. The "Grey Pound attributed £215 billion to the economy in 2005
4.3.2 Negatives/Problems
4.3.2.1 Facilities and Services

Annotations:

  • Private sector developments specifically for older people Important role of charities such as Age Concern to support the elderly Community centres set up to support the elderly and offer a social activity Increased amount of spare time Increased leisure activity to help improve health - subsidised to encourage use Increased power of the "grey" vtote
4.3.2.2 Housing

Annotations:

  • Increased demand for flats and sheltered accommodation High costs to modify homes to support the elderly Need for homes which are easy to use
4.3.2.3 Transport

Annotations:

  • Transport - not all have access to cars due to age, health or cost Ring and ride schemes growing but are very expensive - government subsidised
4.3.2.4 Health

Annotations:

  • Cost of therapy increasing Increased number of people having home medical treatments Increased pressure on the NHS Lack of care staff to support elderly health issues in their homes  Cost of medicines have increases Mental health issues linked to isolation increasing  
4.3.2.5 Economic Dependancy

Annotations:

  • Increased proportion/percentage of the population is over 65 Reduced size of working age population as a percentage of the population Poverty linked to low pensions Reduction in the number of young people in the population Falling birth rate and reducing number of young people Dependant of friends and relations for odd jobs Increasing anxieties about the cost of pensions  
4.4 Solutions/Responses
4.4.1 Increased Workforce

Annotations:

  • Tax incentives for couples with children Stronger anti-ageism laws introduced Raise retirement age to 65 for women and then to 68 for everyone by 2050 Greater employment rights for women Longer maternity and paternity leave allowed for parents
4.4.2 Reduce isolation

Annotations:

  • Subsidise community transport schemes in outlying areas
4.4.3 Housing

Annotations:

  • Improve housing designs such as hip height plugs More serviced/wardened flats and apartments made available Older people expected to downsize housing as they get older 
4.4.4 Lifestyle

Annotations:

  • Increase the number and frequency of social clubs and meeting places More older people asked to carry out volunteer work
4.4.5 Healthcare

Annotations:

  • People encouraged to be more active and improve their quality of life, diet etc Additional NHS monthly contribution (proposed) Improved and subsidised sports facilities - encouraging older people to use at off peak times Access to some drugs for Alzheimer's, certain cancers etc, could be restricted
4.4.6 Raise Public Money

Annotations:

  • Taxes and National Insurance contributions to increase People to be more responsible for paying more into their own pension schemes Means tested elderly welfare payments
4.5 Case Study
5 Population Change
5.1 Causes of Population Change
5.1.1 Natural Causes
5.1.1.1 Births
5.1.1.2 Deaths
5.1.2 Additional Factors
5.1.2.1 Emigration
5.1.2.2 Immigration