Psychology - Cognitive interview improving the accuracy of Eye Witness Testimony (EWT)


Psychology AS - How a cognitive interview can be used to improve the accuracy of eye witness testimony (EWT)
Dani Page
Mind Map by Dani Page, updated more than 1 year ago
Dani Page
Created by Dani Page almost 9 years ago

Resource summary

Psychology - Cognitive interview improving the accuracy of Eye Witness Testimony (EWT)
  1. Main Techniques
    1. Context Reinstatement
      1. Mentally recreate the situation
        1. Milne and Bull - Children and students
        2. Changed Perspective
          1. Recreate from a different point of view
          2. Reverse Order
            1. Recall scene in a different order than what it happened in
            2. Report Everything
              1. Even if information seems irrelevant
                1. Milne and Bull - Children and Students
                  1. Mello and Fisher - Elderly
                2. Additional Features
                  1. Minimized distractions
                    1. Reduced anxiety
                      1. Getting the witness to speak slowly
                        1. Ask open-ended questions
                        2. Fisher et al 1989
                          1. Aim
                            1. To assess the performance of police officers in gathering information using the ECI compared to SI
                            2. Participants
                              1. Police officers
                              2. Measures
                                1. Performance and validity of information
                                2. Design
                                  1. POs were trained to use CI
                                    1. Field Experiment
                                    2. Findings
                                      1. Police gained 47% more useful information compared to when they used SI techniques
                                      2. Conclusion
                                        1. CI is more effective way of getting accurate information from EWs
                                        2. Strengths
                                          1. Field experiment with high ecological validity
                                            1. Research shows its more effective than SI
                                              1. Kohnken 1999
                                                1. Meta analysis 53 studies
                                                  1. 34% improvement when generating information
                                                2. Milne and Bull
                                                  1. Interviewed students and children
                                                    1. Best components for generating information is 'report everything' and 'context reinstatement'
                                                    2. Mello and Fisher 1996
                                                      1. Elderly - 'Report everything' was the best component
                                                    3. Weaknesses
                                                      1. Difficult to evaluate because CI uses a range of procedures
                                                        1. Kebbell interviewed police officers and found that CI requires more time
                                                          1. Memon 1994
                                                            1. Police officers need time for the training
                                                              1. This costs money
                                                          2. Geiselman et al 1986
                                                            1. Aim - Study effect of
                                                              1. CI
                                                                1. SI
                                                                  1. HI
                                                                  2. Conclusion
                                                                    1. Enhances memory recall
                                                                      1. Reduces effect of misleading questions
                                                                      2. Weakness - PPs not matched
                                                                      3. Geiselman et al 1985
                                                                        1. Aim - to compare the validity of CIs to SIs
                                                                          1. Findings - Increase in number of correctly recalled items using CI
                                                                            1. Conclusion - CIs can lead to more accurate information
                                                                              1. Design
                                                                                1. PPs watched 2 films of violent crimes
                                                                                  1. 48 hours later they were interviewed by either CI or SI
                                                                                  2. PPs - 51 Volunteers
                                                                                    1. Measures - accuracy of memory
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