Schizophrenia

Erica Lai
Mind Map by Erica Lai, updated more than 1 year ago
Erica Lai
Created by Erica Lai about 5 years ago
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Introduction to schizophrenia

Resource summary

Schizophrenia
1 Diagnostic Criteria
1.1 Positive Symptoms - reflect an excess or distortion of normal functions
1.1.1 Delusions
1.1.1.1 Bizarre beliefs that seem real, but aren't.
1.1.1.2 Can be paranoid (i.e. fearful of persecution) in nature
1.1.1.3 May also involve inflated beliefs about the person's power and importance
1.1.1.4 Of reference involve the belief that the behaviour or comments of others (even on TV) are meant for them alone
1.1.2 Experiences of control
1.1.2.1 Belief that they are under the control of, for example, an alien force that has invaded their mind and/or body.
1.1.3 Hallucinations
1.1.3.1 Bizarre, unreal perceptions of the environment that are usually auditory (hearing voices) but may also be visual (seeing lights, objects or faces), olfactory or tactile
1.1.4 Disordered thinking
1.1.4.1 The feeling that thoughts have been inserted/withdrawn from the mind
1.1.4.2 In some cases the person may believe their own thoughts are being broadcast so that others can hear them.
1.1.4.3 Tangential, incoherent or loosely associated speech is used as an indicator of thought disorder.
1.2 Negative Symptoms
1.2.1 Reflect a diminution or loss of normal functions, which often persist during periods of low (or absent) positive symptoms.
1.2.2 Affective flattening
1.2.2.1 Reduction in the range and intensity of emotion expression, including facial expression, voice tone, eye contact, and body language.
1.2.3 Alogia
1.2.3.1 Poverty of speech (lessening of speech fluency and productivity)
1.2.3.2 Reflect slowing or blocked thoughts
1.2.4 Avolition
1.2.4.1 Reduction of/inability to initiate and persist in goal-directed behaviour. Often mistaken for apparent disinterest.
1.3 Under DSM-IV-TR, diagnosis requires at least a 1 month duration of 2 or more positive symptoms.
2 The Nature of Schizophrenia
2.1 Is not 'split personality' nor 'multiple personality'
2.2 Sufferers aren't perpetually incoherent nor do they constantly display psychotic behaviour
2.3 Is characterised by a profound disruption of cognition and emotion
2.3.1 affects language, thought, perception, affect, and even sense of self
3 Violence
3.1 association with violent behaviour largely due to media representations
3.1.1 e.g. in 2007 newspapers carried the sad story of psychology graduate Ashleigh Ewing who was brutally murdered by Ronald Dixon, a schizophrenic 'with a history of violence'.
3.2 Content analysis of US TV by Deifenbach (1997)
3.2.1 found that mentally ill people were 10x as likely to be represented as violent compared to the general population of TV characters
3.3 In any one year, approx. 8% of schizophrenic patients will commit a serious act of violence, more than the population who don't have a mental disorder, but less than those with other mental disorders (i.e. depression and personality disorders).
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