1.1.1 Conscience is a construction of the mind that sought to make
sense of disorder and to deal with the conflict that guilt brought.
126.96.36.199 During our early upbringing we accept certain values and beliefs about morality and society,
which may at some stage be rejected by our moral reasoning. However these early formed values
and beliefs still continue to influence our morality through the conscience that seeks to deal with
the conflict that the early beliefs and the later beliefs bring.
188.8.131.52.1.1 part of the conscience
personality that is driven
by impulses to seek
pleasure and satisfaction
184.108.40.206.2.1 part of the personality that
experiences and reacts to the world,
as well as meditating between the
drives of the id and the superego
220.127.116.11.3.1 part of the personality that seeks to
censor and restrain the ego. Often
associated with feelings of guilt.
18.104.22.168.4 He believed that feelings of guilt was intrinsically linked to the third stage if his theory of
psycho-sexual development and the development of what is referred to as the Oedipus Complex.
This is the theory that all young boys are sexually attracted to their mother and resent their
father, who they believe will castrate them out of revenge for these feelings.
22.214.171.124.4.1 He taught that these feelings are eventually repressed into the unconscious
and then form the basis for neuroses that lead to the concept of guilt, as
illustrated by the Superego
126.96.36.199.4.1.1 Freud believed that in religious people this was in response to ideas about God
and the values of the Bible. In non-religious people a response to another source
of external authority, like government, family or societal values.
1.1.2 Our experiences make us who we are, they decide our path. there can be no definitive moral code
of conduct or absolute moral law as our own individual consciences are shapes by our own
experiences . This is why there are so many ethical codes within societies; they are a part of these
external constructs of authority that are determined by our individual experiences.
1.2.1 Our moral centre came from those around us who exert their authority over us - parents, teachers, religion,
leaders - and over time these authorities involve reward and punishment for our actions, and over time
these authorities that we have internalises become central to our understanding of morality.
188.8.131.52 Authoritarian conscience - the guilty conscience is a result of displeasing those in authority, therefore we
fear some sort of rejection from them. A good authoritarian conscience provides a sense of security and
well-being, as it provides a structure that we can work within to ensure both society and we are moral.
184.108.40.206.1 A negative authoritarian conscience can be seen from Fromms own experiences in Nazi Germany. The German people would feel guilt is they
disobeyed their government and this weakened their power and make them submissive to the demands of the Nazi party. The Government
manipulated their weakened consciences to make them feel guilty about helping or support Jews during the 1930's, and it is suggested that
this may be a reason why so many Germans were willing to participate in the atrocities of the Holocaust.
220.127.116.11 Humanistic conscience - our conscience enabled us to assess our success as a human by evaluating our behaviour. In
this way we moderate our behaviour according to the examples of others, by developing our integrity and honesty to
become moral people. This approach has many similarities with the ideas of virtue.
18.104.22.168.1 This approach to conscience is very different from the ideas of the authoritarian conscience as it seeks to understand
humanity and morality from a much more positive and hopefully angle. It is sometimes referred to by Fromm as the 'real
conscience' and is 'a reaction of ourselves to ourselves; the voice of our true selves' that guides us to achieve out potential.
1.3.1 Before the age of ten children take their morality from their parents/carers (heteronymous morality),
but that after this stage their own moral reasoning becomes more prominent due to increasing
awareness of morality and society around them (autonomous morality)
22.214.171.124 This development is essentially due to a child's cognitive development. Piagets approach suggest that the
development of conscience is something that is learned from external sourcesbut is also naturally occurring.
2.1.1 He did not believe that consciencewas an inner voice telling us whats right and
wrong, but he beleived it was 'reason making right decisions' and if used
correctly helps us understand what God see's and good and right
126.96.36.199 His beleif is that people try to do good and
avoid evil, the Synderesis rule. In all
siutuation our subcounsious actions are to do
good, however he said that due to faultly
reasioning or weakness of will some people
perfom bad actions thinking that they are
doing good, and therefore commit sinful acts.
188.8.131.52.1 The idea of faulty reqasoning is how Aquinas explains when people
do things that are vewied as wrong, bad or sinful. He used the
example of a man who slept with another mans wife and claimed he
was doing this on faultly reasoning and therefore evil. However if the
man did it beacuse he bleived that she was his own wife and that she
wanted him, then he is free form any fauilt. He is also free from fault
if he could not have been expdected to know otherwise.
184.108.40.206 He did not always believe that the
conscience was correct, if your
prinicples are flawed or incorrect then
your conscience may be too
2.1.2 Synderesis - the innate 'right reason' that gives
knowledge of the basic prinicples of morality
220.127.116.11 Conscientia - using the princples of synderesis, this is
the ethical judgment which leads to a specific aciton
2.1.3 tl;dr Conscience is
correctly to find out
what God see's as
good. Not a voice
2.2.1 Conscience is the final moral decision maker. The evidence for conscience is our
abailtiy to reason and rationalise, which seperates humans from animals.
18.104.22.168 Conscience can determine and judge the rightness or wrongness of different
actions and thoughts, held a powerful postion in human decsion mamking as it
'magisterailly exerts itslef' spontaneouly 'without being consulted'
22.214.171.124.1 Therefore there is something autheorative and automatic for Butler about conscience.
126.96.36.199.1.1 Bulter did not see mistakes made by conscious as an serious problem as he belevied that in
any moral dilema most people will see intuitively what is the right thing to do. Hoever he
see's it as wicked to blind ones conscience to the way to right and wrong. People can easily
convince themselves that all sorts of wrong actions are right, and this corruption of
conscience by self depiction is worse than evil action which results from it.
188.8.131.52.1.1.1 The consequences of an action is not what makes it right or wrong, as that has already happened
184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11 The purpose of conscience is to guide a person into a way of life that will make him happy
18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124 Conscience will harmonise self love and beneolvence - this may take some sorting out, and so in moral dilemmas we may be uncertain what to do
126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52 Conscience controls human nature
184.108.40.206 'Had it strength, as it has right; had it power as it has manifest
authority, it would absoultely govern the world'
220.127.116.11 Principle of relfection
18.104.22.168.1 Makes us approve or disaprove of our actions
22.214.171.124 Self-love and benelovence
126.96.36.199.1 impluses (selflove -wanting the wellbeing of self or englighted self
interest, not selfishness) (wanting the wellbeiong of other)
188.8.131.52 Basic drives
184.108.40.206.1 Drives us without thought of consequenes
220.127.116.11 God given uin order fore us to lead a proper healthly life
2.3.1 When someone is following their conscience they are, to an extent, following a divine law as given by God.
18.104.22.168 He bleieved when our conscience speaks to us it is God's voice giving us moral direction.
22.214.171.124 Conscience does not create truth but dectects truth that already exists
126.96.36.199 It is the responiblilty of a person to intuitively decide what truth God is guiding them towards
188.8.131.52 A law that speak to the human heart
184.108.40.206 The guilt and shame that is felt when someone makes an incorrect choice by ignoring
conscience is the consequence of not obeying God.