Atrial Fibrillation

Lenore Arnold
Mind Map by Lenore Arnold, updated more than 1 year ago
Lenore Arnold
Created by Lenore Arnold over 1 year ago


Mind Map on Atrial Fibrillation, created by Lenore Arnold on 10/17/2019.

Resource summary

Atrial Fibrillation
  1. What is it?
    1. A type of arrythmia due to electrical signal distubances of the heart
      1. The most common arrythmia affecting approx 200,000 Canadians (Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada, 2018).
        1. Irregular atrial rhythm accompanied by irregular ventricular rhythm of variable rate (Copstead & Banasik, 2014).
        2. Risk Factors
          1. - diabetes
            1. - high blood pressure
              1. - underlying heart disease
                1. - age
            2. Main Complications
              1. - stroke
                1. - heart failure
                  1. people with Afib are 3-5x higher of risk for ischemic stroke. Studies show that long-term use of Warfarin in pts with Afib reduces the risk of stroke by 70-80% (Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada, 2018).
            3. Manifestations
              1. On an EKG, atrial impulses appear as small, squiggly waves of various sizes and shapes
                1. Afib is sustained by multiple reentrant "wavelets"which change countinuously in size and directions
                  1. Majority of atrial depolarizations are blocked at the AV node, few reach the ventricles to initiate ventricular contraction
                    1. Atria quiver rather than contract forcefully --> allowing blood to become stagnant in the atria and the possible formation of thrombi (Copstead & Bamasik, 2014).
                      1. A fib may be intermittent or sustained in the long term
                2. Signs and Symptoms
                  1. Fatigue
                    1. Heart palpitations
                      1. Difficulty breathing
                        1. Chest pain
                          1. Low blood pressure
                            1. Dizziness or fainting
                          2. Types of Afib
                            1. Paroxysmal
                              1. Temporary episodes which come and go. Each episode has a sudden start and then the heart returns to a normal beat on its own within 24 hours wirh out medical assistance (jHeart and Stroke Foundation Canada, 2014).
                              2. Persistent
                                1. Edisodes of Afib last longer than 7 days. Treatment is usually needed (heart and Stroke Foundation Canada, 2014).
                                2. Permanent
                                  1. irregular heart rhythm lasts for < 1 year despite medications or treatments. Some may not feel any symptoms or require medications (Heart and Stroke Foundation Canada, 2014).
                                3. Causes
                                  1. - high blood pressure (most common)
                                    1. Heart failure
                                      1. Coronary artery disease
                                        1. Coronary artery bypass surgery
                                          1. Cardiomyopathy
                                            1. Diabetes
                                              1. Myocarditis or pericarditis
                                                1. Diseases that damage the values of the heart
                                                  1. Atrial septal defect
                                                    1. Heavy alcohol use
                                                      1. Unhealthy wt
                                                        1. Sleep apnea
                                                          1. Age (more common in older people)
                                                          2. Prevention
                                                            1. Heart-healthy lifestyle changes may be recommended by the doctor. This may include the aim for a healthy weight, regular physical activity, control of blood sugar, limiting alcohol, strategies to lower blood pressure, stress management, smoking cessation (NIH, 2019).
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