AS Biology Unit 1 (F211 Paper) - OCR (INCOMPLETE)

Josh Yip
Mind Map by Josh Yip, updated more than 1 year ago
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I originally tried doing it with the whole course but there's honestly no way that would work... Split it paper by paper, and now it's going to be less messy when I'm done with it too. Enjoy :) btw the stuff in the speech boxes are key definitions.
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AS Biology Unit 1 (F211 Paper) - OCR (INCOMPLETE)
1 F211 Module 2: Exchange & Transport Systems
2 F211 Module 1: Cells
2.1 The Cell Theory
2.1.1 Robert Hooke developed compound microscope in 1660s; examined cork slices. All animals/plants found to be made up of cells.
2.1.2 All living things consist of cells
2.1.3 New cells only made by division of existing ones
2.1.4 Cells contain information that acts as instructions for growth, and is passed on to new cells
2.1.5 Created in 1840s by Schleiden and Schwann, expanded by Virchow (1855) and Weisman (1880)
2.2 Microscopes
2.2.1 Light Microscope
2.2.1.1 Uses lenses to produce image; can be directly viewed via eyepiece; images usually stained/sectioned
2.2.1.2 Disadvantages
2.2.1.2.1 low resolution (max 200nm)- light has a wavelength between 400-750nm; needs to pass between objects in order for them to be observed
2.2.1.2.2 Low level of magnification (up to x1500)
2.2.1.3 Advantages
2.2.1.3.1 can view live specimens e.g living tissue
2.2.1.3.2 Relatively cheap, little training required to use
2.2.1.3.3 Gives coloured image able to be seen by naked eye
2.2.2 Resolution- the degree to which two very close together objects can be distinguished
2.2.3 Magnification- the degree at which the size of an image is larger than the object
2.2.4 Electron Microscope
2.2.4.1 Generates a beam of electrons; invisible to naked eye- makes elctron micrographs (greyscale images that are coloured later)
2.2.4.2 Advantages
2.2.4.2.1 Very high resolution (max 0.1nm- electrons have wavelength of 0.004nm
2.2.4.2.2 Very high magnification allows organellesin cells to be viewed in detail
2.2.4.3 Disadvantages
2.2.4.3.1 Very expensive!
2.2.4.3.2 Needs to be done in vacuum as electrons will collide with molecules in the air
2.2.4.3.3 Preparing samples/using microscope requires lots of skill and training
2.2.4.4 2 types of Electron microscopes:
2.2.4.4.1 SEMs direct electrons onto the sample, and they don't pass through; electrons are "bounced off sample to make a 3D image of the SURFACE of the sample; max magnification is x100000
2.2.4.4.2 TEMs direct an electron beam through a thin sample; contrast appears by electrons passing through denser parts of the sample less easily; final image is 2D; max magnification x500000
2.3 Overview of a Cell
2.3.1 Division of labour- each type of organelle has a specific role within the cell, and they all work together to contribute to the survival of the cell
2.3.2 Ultrastructure of an Animal Cell
2.3.3 Ultrastructure of a Plant cell
2.3.4 cytoskeleton- a network of protein fibres found within cells that gives structure and shape to cells, and also moves organelles around inside them
2.3.4.1 fibres called actin filaments are able to move against each other; cause movements in WBCs, and move someorganelles around the cell
2.3.4.2 fibres called microtubules are used to waft liquids past a cell or for microorganisms to pass through a liquid; chromosomes and vesicles are moved along these inside the cell as well
2.3.4.3
2.3.5 Flagella (undulipodia) & Cilia
2.3.5.1 Structurally the same; hair-like extensions that allow movement of the whole cell
2.3.5.2 ENERGY FROM ATP!!
2.3.5.3 cilia are short, many of them; usually single flagellum/undulipodium or only a few
2.3.5.4
2.3.5.5 Eukaryotic cells' flagella move using dynein arms that slide past each other to move; prokaryotic cells' flagella use protein 'flagellin' to spin and propel the cell
2.4 Organelles
2.4.1 Nucleus
2.4.2 Golgi Apparatus
2.4.3 Mitochondria
2.4.4 Vesicles & Lysosomes
2.4.4.1
2.4.5 Ribosomes
2.4.5.1 Site of Protein Synthesis; found free in cytoplasm and also in in RER (not MB)
2.4.6 Chloroplasts
2.4.6.1
2.4.7 Endoplasmic Reticulum
2.4.8 Vacuole
2.4.8.1
2.4.9 Centrioles
2.4.10 organelle- a particular structure of a cell that has a specialised function; may or may not be membrane-bound
2.5 Membranes
2.6 Division
2.7 Tissues
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