Life Span Psychology Chpt. 9 Early Childhood: Cognitive Development

Aria Crimson
Mind Map by Aria Crimson, updated more than 1 year ago
Aria Crimson
Created by Aria Crimson over 5 years ago
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9th edition of Developing Person Through the Lifespan

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Life Span Psychology Chpt. 9 Early Childhood: Cognitive Development
1 Piaget: Preoperational Thought
1.1 2nd of four periods of cognitive development
1.1.1 Named because they don't yet use logical operations (reasoning)
1.1.1.1 But they can think in symbols (symbolic thought) a.k.a an object or word can stand for something imaginary or not seen
1.1.1.1.1 This helps explain children's belief of animism (basically personification of nonhuman objects)
1.2 Characteristically described as illogical and unrealistic
1.2.1 What causes this difficulty to grasp logic?
1.2.1.1 1. Centration- the tendency to focus on one aspect of a situation to the exclusion of others
1.2.1.1.1 2. Focus on appearance- where a young child excludes all attributes that are not apperant
1.2.1.1.1.1 3. Static Reasoning- the world is unchanging, always in the state they currently encounter it
1.2.1.1.1.1.1 4. Irreversibility- where a child believes that nothing can be undone/restored to previous state
1.2.1.1.1.1.1.1 ex: conservation with two glasses equal amounts of liquid moving one into a taller glass so there is now "more" in that glass
1.2.1.1.1.2 ex: girl worried she will turn into a boy with short hair
1.2.1.1.2 ex: insisting dad is a father not a brother
2 Vygotsky: Social Learning
2.1 emphasis on each person's thinking is shaped by others and social aspects of development
2.2 Children are curious and observant and seek answers from mentors (basically any older person) and their mentor's answers are affected by culture and perception
2.2.1 Vygotsky said children learn because their mentors: present challenges, offer assistance, add crucial information, and encourage motivation
2.2.1.1 Vygotsky believed people learned within a zone of proximal development or area where new ideas and skills can be mastered... including skills they can almost reach but are incapable of doing the task independently... so mentors provide temporary support. I.e. scaffolding
2.2.1.1.1 There is also unintentional scaffolding for traits such as with cursing/kicking/etc. basically due to children's tendency to overimitate: when a person imitates an adult's behavior especially non-relevant actions that may be irrelevant/inefficent
2.3 He also believed that talking to oneself (private speech) helped cognitive development
3 The Theory-Theory
3.1 Let's gather round the classroom and sing our theory theory song; Our T-H-E-O-R-I-E T-H-E-O-R-I-E SONG and if you think you know em' than you'd better sing along. I promise this song will get stuck in your head. Bum bum bum. C-H-I-L-D-E-R-N naturally construct theories about whatever they see and hear. Even if they're not always correct. T-H-E-O-R-I-E, T-H-E-O-R-I-E states that children seek explanations through theories and theorize about whatever they see and hear. Bum bum bum. Your turn! Sing it! I apologize for misspelling theory but hey! it rhymed. T-H-E-O-R-I-E T-H-E-O-R-I-E it's where kids construct theories about what they see and hear! Even if they're not always correct. They do it anyways. Bum Bum bum. T-H-E-O-R-I-E T-H-E-O-R-I-E it's where kids construct theories about what they see and hear! Even if they're not always correct. They do it anyways!!!!!!!!!!!! OH YEAH!
3.1.1 Brain and Context
3.1.1.1 Child's ability to develop theories correlates with maturity or prefrontal cortex (which develops executive processing)
3.1.1.1.1 Nurture is also important in the development of the theory of mind such as when a mother discusses thoughts and wishes with her child she develops theory of mind
3.1.1.1.1.1 Chinese kids are about 6 months ahead of US in formation of theory of mind and other markers of early cognition
3.1.2 Language Learning
3.1.2.1 Early childhood=sensitive period not critical; rapid and easy mastery at this age
3.1.2.1.1 Kids in this stage are unfazed by misuse, mispronunciation, ignorance, stuttering, and so forth... so confident and non-self-critical
3.1.2.1.2 Kids learn rapidly at 2 they know on average 500 words by 6 more than 10,000 on average
3.1.2.1.2.1 How? Fast-mapping: putting new words into mental categories by perceived meaning for fast access and addition
3.1.2.1.2.1.1 Related to fast mapping is logical extension where kids learn a word and use it to describe other objects in the same category
3.1.2.1.2.1.1.1 ex: dalmatian cow
3.1.2.1.2.1.1.1.1 or in bilingual children inserting a word from the other language when they don't know what it is in the language they are speaking
3.1.2.1.2.1.2 Five strategies for reading have been found to be especially effective
3.1.2.1.2.1.2.1 1. Code-focused teaching- breaking down the code from spoken to english this can be done by doing things such as learning the alphabet
3.1.2.1.2.1.2.1.1 2. Book reading- vocab is built when adults read to kids and familiarity with pages and print increases
3.1.2.1.2.1.2.1.1.1 3. Parent education- when mentors/older adults stimulate cognition (such as using book reading)
3.1.2.1.2.1.2.1.1.1.1 4. Language enhancement- when mentors expand vocab and grammar based on child's knowledge and experience
3.1.2.1.2.1.2.1.1.1.1.1 5. Preschool programs- where kids learn from teachers, songs, excursions, and others
3.1.2.1.2.2 Kids begin learning and applying basic grammar at the age of 2
3.1.2.1.2.2.1 genes affect expressive (spoken/written) more often than receptive
3.1.2.1.2.2.1.1 Kids overregularize where they apply basic rules of (grammar) to all things. Such as adding s to all plurals (i.e foots)
3.1.2.1.2.2.1.1.1 pragmatics- difficult for children to learn
3.1.2.1.2.2.1.1.1.1 knowledge of pragmatics evident in sociodramatic play
3.1.2.2 Learning Two Languages
3.1.2.2.1 U.S has no official language although everyone applying for citizenship must be able to speak english
3.1.2.2.1.1 Early childhood is when kids can learn languages most easily it's when they're designed to learn language and they easily can become balanced bilingual or trilingual where they can speak all their languages equally as well
3.1.2.2.1.1.1 Language shift is when kids shift from minority language to dominant language but it is not inevitable it can be prevented by attitudes and practices of parents and the community are crucial
3.1.2.2.1.1.2 Bilingual adults and advanced in theory of mind and executive functioning and it
3.1.2.2.1.1.2.1 prevents dementia when older/thought to
3.1.3 Early childhood Education
3.1.3.1 Homes and Schools
3.1.3.1.1 Child- Centered Programs
3.1.3.1.1.1 Stress children's development and growth. Belief kids need to follow own interests rather than adult directions. encourage artistic expression. they also guide the kids in academics that interest them.
3.1.3.1.1.1.1 Monterssori Schools- emphasis: individual pride and achievement and literacy tasks
3.1.3.1.1.1.1.1 Kids in these schools are more advanced in prereading, math, and theory of mind
3.1.3.1.1.1.1.2 their tasks lead to self-confidence, curiosity, and exploration
3.1.3.1.1.1.2 Reggio Emilia: emphasis: skills normally taught in U.S. schools around age 7 learning things such as writing and using tools
3.1.3.1.1.1.2.1 no tests and strong application of arts with low child:adult ratio goal is to foster individuality and self-expression
3.1.3.1.2 Teacher-Directed Programs
3.1.3.1.2.1 Stress academics, often taught by one adult to entire group kids learn letters numbers shapes and colors as set out by a curriculum, set up to make kids ready to learn in formal schools
3.1.3.1.2.1.1 Kids practice sounding out words and counting. Inspired by behavorism
3.1.3.1.3 If home education is poor preschool helps cognition, health, and social skills
3.1.3.1.4 Head Start: a federally funded childhood intervention program for low-income children of preschool age
3.1.3.1.4.1 Goals: lifting families from poverty, promoting literacy, providing dental care, and immunizations, and teaching standard english. Most are child centered but most have become increasingly teacher-directed.
3.1.3.1.5 Long term gains from Intensive Programs: preschool advances learning; early education has long term benefits on kids; Perry, Abecedarian, and Child parent centers have all proven sucessful. Kids with early education are likely to go to college and less likely to go to jail. they have higher aspirations, etc.
3.1.3.1.5.1 cost is 6,000-18000 per child which is low compared to the cost of specialized education thus a wise investment, avg. funding now is 5000
4 Theory of Mind
4.1 A person's theory on what they believe someone else might be thinking
4.1.1 Normally occurs around age 4 because to do this the person must realize that everyone's thoughts are not the same as their own
4.1.1.1 Development of theory of mind can be seen when kids try to escape punishment by lying because their faces will betray them thus showing they have an expectation of what their parents will say/do or a theory of what is going/will go on in their parent's minds thus they react by giving themselves away
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